Our perception of objects depends on our prior experience with them. What most people would call a bird is “obviously” a sparrow, sandpiper, or cockatiel for a birdwatcher. Expertise sharpens our ability to notice details. The more we learn about objects and the more familiar they become, the more details we recognize. Thus, we continue to make generalizations, but these generalizations get better and more accurate all the time.
A research group at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics has studied what happens in the brain when we familiarize ourselves with objects. To do this they first taught rhesus monkeys to categorize objects according to specific features. Monkeys are ideal subjects for such experiments, for they are able to master a variety of visual categorization tasks and the organization of their visual system is strikingly similar to that of humans.
In these tests the Max Planck scientists determined that single neurones in a particular brain region reacted to the two features “eye height” and “eye separation.” The activity of these neurones was substantially stronger when these two “relevant” features fit the category in question. The other two features “nose length” and “mouth height” provoked only an indifferent reaction. In other words, these specialized neurones had learned to distinguish between the two categories. Rather than simply representing the presence of a specific object or features, they convey detailed information about the features that are diagnostic for the two categories.
The researchers were also able to show that the monkey brains actually use the features learned in this experiment to recognize objects. After training the animals were able to identify “matching” faces, i.e. faces with similar features.
The T�bingen group concludes that there are apparently single neurones that sharpen our perception when they are trained to respond to categories. By making generalizations our brain is able to encode and interpret what we see around us.