Deaf people often report enhanced abilities in their remaining senses, but up until now no one has explained how this occurs. Now, researchers at The University of Western Ontario have discovered there is a causal link between enhanced visual abilities and reorganization of the part of the brain that usually handles auditory input in congenitally deaf cats. Published in Nature Neuroscience, the findings reveal the astonishing power of the brain to re-task its components.
Cats are the only animal besides humans that can be born deaf. Using congenitally deaf cats and hearing cats, researcher Stephen Lomber and his team showed that only two specific visual abilities are enhanced in the deaf: visual localization in the peripheral field and visual motion detection. They found the part of the auditory cortex that would normally pick up peripheral sound enhanced peripheral vision, leading the researchers to conclude the function stays the same but switches from auditory to visual.
“The brain is very efficient, and doesn’t let unused space go to waste,” says Lomber. “The brain wants to compensate for the lost sense with enhancements that are beneficial. For example, if you’re deaf, you would benefit by seeing a car coming far off in your peripheral vision, because you can’t hear that car approaching from the side; the same with being able to more accurately detect how fast something is moving.”
He also plans to conduct research to see if these changes in the brain also happen to those who could hear at one time, or if auditory experience prevents the changes from occurring.
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