RARE "HIV Discoverer" Robert Gallo Hand Signed 10X8 Color Photo For Sale

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RARE "HIV Discoverer" Robert Gallo Hand Signed 10X8 Color Photo:

Up for sale a RARE! "HIV Discoverer" Robert Gallo Hand Signed 10X8 Color Photo. 



Charles Gallo (/ˈɡɑːloʊ/; born March 23, 1937) is an American biomedical researcher. He is best known for his

role in the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as

the infectious agent responsible for acquired immune

deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in the development of the HIV

blood test, and he has been a major contributor to subsequent HIV research. Gallo

is the director and co-founder of the Institute of Human Virology (IHV)

at the University of

Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland,

established in 1996 in a partnership including the State of Maryland and the

City of Baltimore. In November 2011, Gallo was named the first Homer &

Martha Gudelsky Distinguished Professor in Medicine. Gallo is also a co-founder

of biotechnology company Profectus BioSciences, Inc. and co-founder and

scientific director of the Global Virus Network (GVN).

Gallo was the most cited scientist in the world from 1980 to 1990, according to

the Institute for Scientific Information, and he was ranked third in the world

for scientific impact for the period 1983–2002. He has published over

1,300 papers. Gallo was born in Waterbury, Connecticut to

a working-class family of Italian descent. He earned a BS degree in Biology in 1959 from Providence College and

received an MD from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in

1963. After completing his medical residency at

the University of Chicago, he

became a researcher at the National Cancer Institute,

where he worked for 30 years, mainly as head of the Laboratory of Tumor Cell

Biology. Gallo states that his choice of profession was influenced by the early

death of his sister from leukemia, a disease to which he initially

dedicated much of his research. After

listening to a talk by biologist David Baltimore and further stimulation from his

virologist colleague, Robert Ting, concerning the work of the late Howard Martin Temin, Gallo

became interested in the study of retroviruses, and made their study the primary activity of his

lab. In 1976, Doris Morgan, a first year post-doctoral fellow in Gallo's lab,

was asked by Gallo to examine culture fluid of activated lymphocytes for the

possible production of growth factors. Soon she was successful in growing T lymphocytes. Gallo, Morgan and Frank Ruscetti, another

researcher in Gallo's lab, coauthored a paper in Science describing their method. The Gallo group identified this as T-cell

growth factor (TCGF). The name was changed in 1978 to IL-2 (interleukin-2) by the Second International

Lymphokine Conference (which was held in Interlaken, Switzerland). Although earlier reports had described soluble

molecules with biologic effects, the effects and biochemistry of the factors

were not well characterized. One such example was the report by Julius Gordon

in 1965, which described blastogenic transformation of

lymphocytes in extracellular media. However, cell growth was not demonstrated

and the affected cell type was not identified, making the identity of the

factor(s) involved unclear and its natural function unknown. The discovery of

IL-2 allowed T cells, previously thought to be dead end cells, to be grown

significantly in culture for the first time, opening research into many aspects

of T cell immunology. Gallo's lab later purified and biochemically

characterized IL-2. This breakthrough also allowed researchers to grow T-cells

and study the viruses that affect them, such as human T-cell leukemia virus,

or HTLV, the first retrovirus identified in humans, which Bernard

Poiesz, another post-doctoral fellow in Gallo's lab played a key role in its

isolation. HTLV's role in leukemia was clarified when Kiyoshi Takatsuki

and other Japanese researchers, puzzling over an outbreak of a rare form of

leukemia, later independently found the same retrovirus, and both groups

showed HTLV to be the cause. At the same time, a similar HTLV-associated

leukemia was identified by the Gallo group in the Caribbean. In 1982,

Gallo received the Lasker Award: "For his pioneering

studies that led to the discovery of the first human RNA tumor virus [the old

name for retroviruses] and its association with certain leukemias and lymphomas.

On May 4, 1984, Gallo and his collaborators published a series of four papers

in the scientific journal Science demonstrating that a retrovirus they had

isolated, called HTLV-III in the belief that the virus was related to the

leukemia viruses of Gallo's earlier work, was the cause of AIDS. A French team at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, led by Luc Montagnier, had published a paper in Science in

1983, describing a retrovirus they called LAV (lymphadenopathy associated

virus), isolated from a patient at risk for AIDS. Gallo was awarded

his second Lasker Award in 1986 for "determining that the retrovirus now

known as HIV-1 is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

(AIDS)." He is the only recipient of two Lasker Awards. In 1986, Gallo, Dharam Ablashi, and Syed Zaki

Salahuddin discovered human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), later found to cause Roseola infantum, an

infantile disease. In 1989, at a conference sponsored by the

Catholic Church at Vatican City on HIV/AIDS, Gallo promised

attendees that there would be an effective vaccine by 1992. In 1991,

following years of controversy surrounding a 1987 out of court settlement

between the National Institutes of Health and France's Pasteur Institute, Gallo

admitted the virus he claimed to have discovered in 1984 was in reality a virus

sent to him from France the year before, putting an end to a six-year effort by

Gallo and his employer, the National Institutes of Health, to claim the AIDS

virus as an independent discovery. In 1995, Gallo with his colleagues Paolo Lusso and

Fiorenza Cocchi published their discovery that chemokines, a class of naturally

occurring compounds, are potent and specific HIV inhibitors. This discovery was heralded by Science

magazine as one of the top scientific breakthroughs of the year. The role

chemokines play in controlling the progression of HIV infection has influenced

thinking on how AIDS works against the human immune system] and led to a class of drugs used to treat HIV,

the chemokine antagonists or entry inhibitors, and helped (conceptually) in the advances

that led to the discovery of the cell co-receptor for HIV infection, because

this is the molecule the HIV inhibitory molecules bind.Gallo and two longtime

scientific collaborators, Robert R. Redfield and William A. Blattner,

founded the Institute of Human Virology in

1996. Gallo's team at the institute maintain an ongoing program of scientific

research and clinical care and treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS,

treating more than 5,000 patients in Baltimore and 500,000 patients at

institute-supported clinics in Africa and the Caribbean. In July 2007, Gallo and his team were awarded

a $15 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates

Foundation for research into a preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS.

Additionally, in 2011 Gallo and his team received $23.4 million from a

consortium of funding sources to support the next phase of research into the

Institute of Human Virology's (IHV) promising HIV/AIDS preventive vaccine

candidate. The IHV vaccine program grants included $16.8 million from the

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, $2.2 million from the U.S. Army's

Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), and other research funding from a variety

of sources including the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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