Vintage F&F Jemima and Mose Salt & Pepper Shakers 1940s For Sale

Vintage F&F Jemima and Mose  Salt & Pepper Shakers 1940s

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Vintage F&F Jemima and Mose Salt & Pepper Shakers 1940s:

Vintage F&F Jemima and Mose Salt & Pepper shakers. Manufactured in the 1940s by F&F mold & die works in Dayton Ohio, These shakers featuring Aunt Jemima & Uncle Moses The condiiton is excellent on both of them. They were carefully stored for years from an estate collection. They are 3.5" tall made of hard plastic.. Aunt Jemina still has harden salt inside. they weigh less that 1 pound.

Pearl Milling Company(formerly known asAunt Jemimafrom 1889 to 2021) is an American breakfast brand forpancake mix, syrup, and other breakfast food products. The original version of the pancake mix for the brand was developed in 1888–1889 by the Pearl Milling Company and was advertised as the firstready-mixcooking product.[1][2]In June 2021, the Aunt Jemima brand name was discontinued by its current owner,PepsiCo, with all products rebranded to Pearl Milling Company, the name of the company that produced the original pancake mix product.[3]

Nancy Greenportrayed the Aunt Jemima character at the 1893World's Columbian Expositionin Chicago, one of the first Black corporate models in the United States.[1]Subsequent advertising agencies hired dozens of actors to perform the role as the first organized sales promotion campaign.[4]

Aunt Jemima is modeled after, and has been a famous example of, the"Mammy" archetype in the Southern United States.[5]Due to the "Mammy" stereotype's historical ties inslavery,Quaker Oatsannounced in June 2020 that the Aunt Jemima brand would be discontinued "to make progress toward racial equality",[6]leading to the Aunt Jemima image being removed by the fourth quarter of 2020, and discontinuation of the name by June 2021.[7

  • 1History
    • 1.1
Rutt's recipe from November 1, 1889, on display atPatee Housemuseum inSt. Joseph, Missouri

In 1888,St. Joseph GazetteeditorChris L. Ruttand his friend Charles G. Underwood bought a smallflour millat 214 North 2nd St. inSt. Joseph, Missouri.[8]Facing a glutted flour market, Rutt and Underwood's "Pearl Milling Company" produced flour,cornmeal, and in 1889—following some experimination—they began selling their excess flour as a pancake mix in paper bags with the generic label "Self-Rising Pancake Flour" (later dubbed "the firstready-mix").[9][1][2][10]

To distinguish their pancake mix, in fall 1889 Rutt appropriated the Aunt Jemima name and image fromlithographedposters seen at avaudevillehouse in St. Joseph, Missouri.[1][10]The original 1889 Formula for Aunt Jemima mix was:

  • 100lb[45kg] HardWinter Wheat
  • 100lb[45kg]Corn Flour
  • 7+1⁄2lb[3.4kg] B.W.T.Phosphatesfrom Provident Chem[ical] St L[ouis]
  • 2+3⁄4lb[1.2kg]Bicarb[onate] Soda
  • 3lb[1.4kg] Salt.

However, Rutt and Underwood could not raise enough capital and quickly ran out of money.[1]They sold their company to the Randolph Truett Davis Milling Company (also in St. Joseph, Missouri) in 1890, then the largest flouring mill on the Missouri River, having an established reputation with wholesale and retail grocers throughout theMissouri River Valley.[1][2][11]According to the 2007 brand owner, theQuaker Oats Company(part ofPepsiCo), R.T.Davis also purchased a company called the Aunt Jemima Manufacturing Company in 1890.[2]R.T.Davis improved the flavor and texture of the product by addingrice flourandcorn sugar, and simplified the ready-mix by addingpowdered milk. Only water was then needed to prepare the batter.[1]

The brand became successful enough that the Davis Milling Company was renamed Aunt Jemima Mills in February 1914.[2][11]In 1915, the well-known Aunt Jemima brand was the basis for a trademark law ruling that set a new precedent. Previously,United States trademark lawhad protected against infringement by other sellers of the same product, but under the "Aunt Jemima Doctrine", the seller of pancake mix was also protected against infringement by an unrelated seller of a different but related product—pancake syrup.[12]

The Quaker Oats Company purchased the Aunt Jemima Mills Company in 1926, and formally registered the Aunt Jemima trademark in April 1937.[2]It became one of the longest continually running logos and trademarks in the history of American advertising.[13]

Quaker Oats introduced Aunt Jemima syrup in 1966. This was followed by Aunt Jemima Butter Lite syrup in 1985 and Butter Rich syrup in 1991.[2]Quaker Oats was purchased byPepsiCoin 2001.

Aunt Jemima brandedfrozen foodswere licensed out to Aurora Foods in 1996, which was absorbed intoPinnacle Foodsin 2004.[2]This entire frozen food product lineup was permanently discontinued by Pinnacle Foods in 2017 following aproduct recall.[14]

Branding and advertising[edit source]1909 ad showingNancy Greenas Aunt Jemima, andrag dollfamily promotion1935 Quaker Oats magazine advertisement for Aunt Jemima pancake mix, featuring Anna Robinson as Aunt Jemima

The earliest advertising was based upon a vaudeville parody, and remained acaricaturefor many years.[1][5][10]

Quaker Oats commissionedHaddon Sundblom, a nationally known commercial artist, to paint a portrait of an obese actress named Anna Robinson, and the Aunt Jemima package was redesigned around the new likeness.[1][15]

James J. Jaffee, a freelance artist from the Bronx, New York, also designed one of the images of Aunt Jemima used by Quaker Oats to market the product into the mid-20th century.

Just as the formula for the mix changed several times over the years, so did the Aunt Jemima image. In 1968, the face of Aunt Jemima became a composited creation. She was slimmed down from her previous appearance, depicting a more "svelte" look, wearing a white collar, and geometric print "headband" still resembling her previous kerchief.[1][16][17][18]

The logo of the Aunt Jemima brand from 1993 to fall 2020

In 1989, marking the 100th anniversary of the brand, her image was again updated, with all head-covering removed, revealing wavy, gray-streaked hair, gold-trimmed pearl earrings, and replacing her plain white collar with lace. At the time, the revised image was described as a move towards a more "sophisticated" depiction, with Quaker marketing the change as giving her "a more contemporary look" which remained on the products until early 2021.[16][17]

Rebranding of 2020–2021[edit source]The logo of the Pearl Milling Company branding introduced in June 2021

On June 17, 2020, Quaker Oats announced that the Aunt Jemima brand would be discontinued and replaced with a new name and image "to make progress toward racial equality".[6][19]The image was removed from packaging in fall 2020, while the name change was said to be planned for a later date.[20][21]

Within one day of the June 2020 announcement, other similarly motivated rebrandings and reviews of brand marketing were also announced, including forUncle Ben'srice (which was renamed toBen's Original), theMrs. Butterworth'spancake syrup brand and bottle shape, and the "Rastus" Black chef logo used byCream of Wheat.[3]

Days earlier, American satirical news outletThe Onionpublished a fictional article about a similar announcement.[22]

Descendants of Aunt Jemima modelsLillian RichardandAnna Short Harringtonobjected to the change. Vera Harris, a family historian for Richard's family, said "I wish we would take a breath and not just get rid of everything. Because good or bad, it is our history."[23]Harrington's great-grandson Larnell Evans said "This is an injustice for me and my family. This is part of my history." Evans had previously lost alawsuit against Quaker Oats(and others) for billions of dollars in 2015.[24]

On February 9, 2021,PepsiCoannounced that the replacement brand name would be Pearl Milling Company. PepsiCo had purchased that brand name for that purpose on February 1, 2021.[3][25]The new branding was launched that June, one year after the company announced they would drop Aunt Jemima branding.[19]PepsiCo referenced the Aunt Jemima brand bylogotypeon the front of the packaging for at least six months after the rebrand. Following that period, PepsiCo said it won't be able to completely permanently abandon the Aunt Jemima brand due totrademark law; if it does, a third party could obtain and use the brand.[26]

Character of Aunt Jemima[edit source]"Jemima" character on 1899cakewalksheet music cover

Aunt Jemima is based on the common"Mammy" archetype, a plump black woman wearing a headscarf who is a devoted and submissive servant.[13][5]Her skin is dark and dewy, with a pearly white smile. Although depictions vary over time, they are similar to the common attire and physical features of "mammy" characters throughout American history.[27][28][29][30][31][32]

The term "aunt" and "uncle" in this context was aSouthernform of address used with older enslaved peoples. They were denied use of courtesy titles, such as "mistress" and "mister".[33][34]

A British image in the Library of Congress, which may have been created as early as 1847, shows a smiling black woman named "Miss Jim-Ima Crow," with a framed image of "James Crow" on the wall behind her.[35]A character named "Aunt Jemima" appeared on the stage in Washington, D.C., as early as 1864.[36]Rutt's inspiration for Aunt Jemima wasBilly Kersands' American-styleminstrelsy/vaudevillesong "Old Aunt Jemima", written in 1875. Rutt reportedly saw a minstrel show featuring the "Old Aunt Jemima" song in the fall of 1889, presented byblackfaceperformers identified by Arthur F. Marquette as "Baker & Farrell".[10]Marquette recounts that the actor playing Aunt Jemima wore anapronandkerchief.[10][34]

However, Doris Witt atUniversity of Iowawas unable to confirm Marquette's account.[15]Witt suggests that Rutt might have witnessed a performance by the vaudeville performer Pete F. Baker, who played characters described in newspapers of that era as "Ludwig" and "Aunt Jemima". His portrayal of the Aunt Jemima character may have been a white male in blackface, pretending to be a German immigrant, imitating a black minstrel parodying an imaginary black female enslaved cook.[15]

Beginning in 1894, the company added an Aunt Jemima paper doll family that could be cut out from the pancake box.[37]Aunt Jemima is joined by her husband, UncleRastus(later renamed Uncle Mose to avoid confusion with theCream of Wheatcharacter, while Uncle Mose was first introduced as the plantation butler).[38]Their children, described as "comical pickaninnies": Abraham Lincoln, Dilsie, Zeb, and Dinah. The paper doll family was posed dancing barefoot, dressed in tattered clothing, and the box was labeled "Before the Receipt was sold." (Receiptis an archaic rural form of recipe.)[37]Buying another box with elegant clothing cut-outs to fit over the dolls, the customer could transform them "After the Receipt was sold." This placed them in theHoratio Algerrags-to-riches American cultural mythos.[37]

Rag dollversions were offered as a premium in 1909: "Aunt Jemima Pancake Flour/Pica ninny Doll/ The Davis Milling Company." Early versions were portrayed as poor people with patches on the trousers, large mouths, and missing teeth. The children's names were changed to Diana and Wade. Over time, there were improvements in appearance. Oil-cloth versions were available circa the 1950s, with cartoonish features, round eyes, and watermelon mouths.[39]

Marketing materials for the line of products centered around the "Mammy" archetype, including the slogan first used at the 1893World's Columbian Expositionin Chicago, Illinois: "I's in Town, Honey".[5][15][40]

At that World's Fair, and for decades afterward,[34]marketers created and circulated fictional stories about Aunt Jemima.[4]She was presented as a "loyal cook" for a fictional Colonel Higbee'sLouisianaplantation on theMississippi River.[4][37][40][41]Jemima was said to use a secret recipe "from the South before the Civil War," with their "matchless plantation flavor," to make the best pancakes inDixie.[34][37]Another story described her as diverting Union soldiers during the Civil War with her pancakes long enough for Colonel Higbee to escape.[40]She was said to have revived a group of shipwrecked survivors with her flapjacks.[4]

A typical magazine ad from the turn of the century created by advertising executiveJames Webb Young, and the illustratorN.C. Wyeth,[40]shows a heavyset black cook talking happily while a white man takes notes. The ad copy says, "After the Civil War, after her master's death, Aunt Jemima was finally persuaded to sell her famous pancake recipe to the representative of a northern milling company."[4]

However, the Davis Milling Company was not located in a northern state.Missouri in the American Civil Warwas a hotly contestedborder state. In reality, she never existed, created by marketers to better sell products.[32]

Controversy[edit source]See also:Nadir of American race relations1920Saturday Evening Postad with N.C. Wyeth illustration

Although the Aunt Jemima character was not created until nearly 25 years after theAmerican Civil War, the clothing, dancing, enslaved dialect, singing old plantation songs as she worked, all harkened back to a glorified view ofantebellumSouthern plantation life as a "happy slave" narrative.[32][37]The marketing legend surrounding Aunt Jemima's successful commercialization of her "secret recipe" contributes to the post-Civil War nostalgia and romanticism of Southern life in service of America's developing consumer culture — especially in the context of selling kitchen items.[13][5][30]

African American women formed the Women's Columbian Association and the Women's Columbian Auxiliary Association to address the exclusion of African Americans from the 1893World's Fairexhibitions, asking that the fair reflect the success of post-Emancipation African Americans.[37]Instead, the Fair included a miniature West African village whose natives were portrayed as primitive savages.[40]Ida B. Wellswas incensed by the exclusion of African Americans from mainstream fair activities; so-called "Negro Day" was a picnic held off-site from the fairgrounds.[37]

Black scholarsHallie Quinn Brown,Anna Julia Cooper, andFannie Barrier Williamsused the World's Fair as an opportunity to address how African American women were being exploited by white men.[37][42]In her bookA Voice from the South(1892), Cooper had noted the fascination with "Southern influence, Southern ideas, and Southern ideals" had "dictated to and domineered over the brain and sinew of this nation".[37]

These educated progressive women saw "a mammy for the national household" represented at the World's Fair by Aunt Jemima.[37]This directly relates to the belief that slavery cultivated innate qualities in African Americans. The notion that African Americans were natural servants reinforced a racist ideology renouncing the reality of African American intellect.[37]

Aunt Jemima embodied a post-Reconstruction fantasy of idealized domesticity, inspired by "happy slave" hospitality, and revealed a deep need to redeem the antebellum South.[37]There were others that capitalized on this theme, such asUncle Ben's RiceandCream of Wheat's Rastus.[34][37]

Performers of Aunt Jemima[edit source]

The African American Registry of the United States suggestsNancy Greenand others who played the caricature of Aunt Jemima[21]should be celebrated despite what has been widely condemned as a stereotypical and racist brand image. The registry wrote, "we celebrate the birth of Nancy Green in 1834. She was a Black storyteller and one of the first Black corporate models in the United States."[43]

Following Green's work as Aunt Jemima, very few were well-known. Advertising agencies (such asJ. Walter Thompson,Lord and Thomas, and others) hired dozens of actors to portray the role, often assigned regionally, as the first organized sales promotion campaign.[1][4]

Quaker Oats ended local appearances for Aunt Jemima in 1965.[44]

Nancy Green[edit source]Main article:Nancy Green

Nancy Green was the first spokesperson hired by the R. T. Davis Milling Company for the Aunt Jemima pancake mix.[2]Green was born into slavery inMontgomery County, Kentucky.[1][45]Dressed as Aunt Jemima, Green appeared at the 1893World's Columbian Expositionin Chicago, beside the "world's largest flour barrel" (24 feet high), where she operated a pancake-cooking display, sang songs, and told romanticized stories about the Old South (a happy place for blacks and whites alike). She appeared at fairs, festivals, flea markets, food shows, and local grocery stores; her arrival heralded by large billboards featuring the caption, "I'se in town, honey."[1][5][45]

Green refused to cross the ocean for the 1900Paris exhibition.[15][46]She was replaced by Agnes Moodey, "a negress of 60 years", who was then reported as the original Aunt Jemima.[47]Green died in 1923 and was buried in an unmarked pauper's grave in Chicago'sOak Woods Cemetery.[40][46][48][49]A headstone was placed on September 5, 2020.[50]

Agnes Moody[edit source]

Agnes Moody performed as Aunt Jemima at the1900 Paris Fair.[51]

Lillian Richard[edit source]Main article:Lillian RichardHistorical marker dedicated to Lillian Richard, Aunt Jemima portrayer

Lillian Richard was hired to portray Aunt Jemima in 1925, and remained in the role for 23 years. Richard was born in 1891, and grew up in the tiny community ofFouke7 miles west ofHawkinsinWood County, Texas. In 1910, she moved toDallas, working initially as a cook. Her job "pitching pancakes" was based inParis, Texas.[4]After she suffered a strokecirca1947–1948, she returned to Fouke, where she lived until her death in 1956. Richard was honored with aTexas Historical Markerin her hometown, dedicated in her name on June 30, 2012.[52][53][54][55]

Hawkins, Texas, east ofMineola, is known as the "Pancake Capital of Texas" because of longtime resident Lillian Richard. The local chamber of commerce decided to use Hawkins' connection to Aunt Jemima to boost tourism.[52]In 1995, State Senator David Cain introduced Senate Resolution No. 73 designating Hawkins as the "Pancake Capital of Texas", which was passed into law; the measure was spearheaded by Lillian's niece, Jewell Richard-McCalla.[4]

Anna Robinson[edit source]Anna Robinson as Aunt Jemima in an advertisement

Anna Robinson was hired to play Aunt Jemima at the 1933Century of ProgressChicago World's Fair.[2][10]Robinson answered an open audition, and her appearance was more like the "mammy" stereotype than the slender Lillian Richard.[15]Born circa 1899, she was also from Kentucky and widowed (like Green), but in her 30s with 8 years of education.[56]She was sent to New York City byLord and Thomasto have her picture taken. "Never to be forgotten was the day they loaded 350 pounds of Anna Robinson on the Twentieth Century Limited."[10]

She appeared at prestigious establishments frequented by the rich and famous, such asEl Morocco, theStork Club, "21", and theWaldorf-Astoria.[1][56]Photos show Robinson making pancakes for celebrities and stars ofBroadway, radio, and motion pictures. They were used in advertising "ranked among the highest read of their time".[10]The Aunt Jemimapackagingwas redesigned in her likeness.[1][15]

Robinson reportedly worked for the company until her death in 1951,[1][2]although the work was sporadic and for mere weeks in a year.[56]Nevertheless, this was not enough to escape the hard life into which she was born.[56]Her $1,200 total payment in 1939 (equivalent to $23,377 in 2021) was almost the entirety of the household's annual income.[56]The official Aunt Jemima history timeline once stated she was "able to make enough money to provide for her children and buy a 22-room house where she rents rooms to boarders".[57]The same claim was made forAnna Short Harrington. According to the 1940 census, she rented an apartment in a four-flat inWashington Parkwith her daughter, son-in-law, and two grandchildren.[56]

Rosa Washington Riles[edit source]

Rosa Washington Riles became the third face on Aunt Jemima packaging in the 1930s, and continued until 1948. Rosa Washington was born in 1901 nearRed OakinBrown County, Ohio, one of several children of Robert and Julie (Holliday) Washington and a granddaughter of George and Phoeba Washington.[58]She was employed as a cook in the home of a Quaker Oats executive and began pancake demonstrations at her employer's request. She died in 1969, and is buried near her parents and grandparents in the historicRed Oak Presbyterian Churchcemetery ofRipley, Ohio.[58]An annual Aunt Jemima breakfast has been a long-time fundraiser for the cemetery, and the church maintains a collection of Aunt Jemima memorabilia.[33][58][59][60]

Anna Short Harrington[edit source]Main article:Anna Short Harrington

Anna Short Harrington began her career as Aunt Jemima in 1935 and continued to play the role until 1954. She was born in 1897 inMarlboro County, South Carolina. The Short family lived on thePegues Placeplantation as sharecroppers.[61]In 1927, she moved toSyracuse, New York. Quaker Oats discovered her cooking pancakes at the 1935New York State Fair.[62][63][64]Harrington died in Syracuse in 1955.[61][62][63][64]

Edith Wilson[edit source]Main article:Edith Wilson (singer)

Edith Wilson became the face of Aunt Jemima on radio, television, and in personal appearances, from 1948 to 1966. Wilson was the first Aunt Jemima to appear in television commercials. She was born in 1896 inLouisville, Kentucky. Wilson was aclassic bluessinger and actress in Chicago, New York, and London. She appeared on radio inThe Great Gildersleeve, on radio and television inAmos 'n' Andy, and on film inTo Have and Have Not(1944). On March 31, 1981, she died in Chicago.[1][65]

Key to the city[edit source]

The Aunt Jemima character, portrayed at the time byEdith Wilson, received theKey to the CityofAlbion, Michigan, on January 25, 1964.[66]Actresses portraying Aunt Jemima visited Albion,Battle Creek("Cereal City"), and other Michigan cities many times over three decades.Grand Rapidshad an Aunt Jemima's Kitchen, one of 21 locations, until it was changed to Colonial Kitchen in 1968.[44]

Ethel Ernestine Harper[edit source]Main article:Ethel Ernestine Harper

Ethel Ernestine Harper portrayed Aunt Jemima during the 1950s.[1][18]Harper was born on September 17, 1903, inGreensboro, Alabama.[67]Prior to the Aunt Jemima role, Harper graduated from college at the age of 17, taught elementary school for 2 years, high school mathematics for 10 years, moved to New York City where she performed inThe Hot Mikadoin 1939 andHarlem Cavalcadein 1942, then toured Europe during and afterWorld War IIas one of the Ginger Snaps. On March 31, 1979, she died inMorristown, New Jersey.[1][68]She was the last individual model for the character's logo.[18]

Rosie Lee Moore Hall[edit source]

Rosie Lee Moore Hall portrayed Aunt Jemima from 1950 until her death in 1967. Hall was born on June 22, 1899, inRobertson County, Texas. She worked for Quaker Oats in the company's Oklahoma advertising department until she answered their search for a new Aunt Jemima. She suffered a heart attack on her way to church and died on February 12, 1967. She was buried in the family plot in the Colony Cemetery nearWheelock, Texas. Hall was the last "living" Aunt Jemima. On May 7, 1988, her grave was declared an historical landmark.[1][4]

Aylene Lewis[edit source]

Aylene Lewis portrayed Aunt Jemima at theDisneylandAunt Jemima's Pancake House, a popular eating place at the park on New Orleans Street inFrontierland, from 1957 until her death in 1964. Lewis became well known posing for pictures with visitors and serving pancakes to dignitaries, such as Indian Prime MinisterJawaharlal Nehru. She also developed a close relationship withWalt Disney.[1][10]

Slang[edit source]

The term "Aunt Jemima" is sometimes used colloquially as a female version of the derogatory epithet "Uncle Tom" or "Rastus". In this context, the slang term "Aunt Jemima" falls within the "mammy archetype" and refers to a friendly black woman who is perceived as obsequiously servile or acting in, or protective of, the interests ofwhites.[69]

John Sylvester ofWTDY-AMdrew criticism after callingCondoleezza Ricean “Aunt Jemima” andColin Powellan "Uncle Tom", referring to remarks by singer and civil rights activistHarry Belafonteabout their alleged subservience in theGeorge W. Bush administration. He apologized by giving away Aunt Jemima pancake mix and syrup.[70]

Barry Presgraves, then 77-year-old Mayor ofLuray, Virginia, wascensured5-to-1 by the town council because he referred toKamala Harrisas "Aunt Jemima" after she was selected byJoe offerento be theDemocratic Party vice presidential -02.

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