RARE “Kinetic Theory of Gases" Sydney Chapman Hand Signed 3X5 Card For Sale

RARE “Kinetic Theory of Gases
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RARE “Kinetic Theory of Gases" Sydney Chapman Hand Signed 3X5 Card:
$499.99

Up for sale a RARE! "Kinetic Theory of Gases" Sydney Chapman Hand Signed 3X5 Card Dated 1959. This sale also includes a hand written note on an ALS.




ES-3742




and the Earth's ozone layer has inspired a broad range of research over

many decades. Chapman was born in Eccles, near Salford in

England and began his advanced studies at a technical institute, now the University of Salford, in

1902. In 1904 at age 16, Chapman entered the University of Manchester.

He competed for a scholarship to the university offered by his home county, and

was the last student selected. Chapman later reflected, "I sometimes

wonder what would have happened if I'd hit one place lower." He

initially studied engineering in the department headed by Osborne Reynolds. Chapman was taught mathematics by Horace Lamb, the Beyer professor of mathematics, and J. E. Littlewood, who came

from Cambridge in Chapman's final year at Manchester. Although he graduated

with an engineering degree, Chapman had become so enthusiastic for mathematics

that he stayed for one further year to take a mathematics degree. Following

Lamb's suggestion, Chapman applied for a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge.

He was at first awarded only a partial scholarship as a sizar (meaning

that he obtained financial support by acting as a servant to other students),

but from his second year onwards he received a full scholarship. He graduated

as a wrangler in

1910. He began his research in pure mathematics under G. H. Hardy, but later that year was asked by Sir Frank Dyson to be

his chief assistant at the Royal Greenwich Observatory.[ From 1914 to 1919,

Chapman returned to Cambridge as a lecturer in mathematics and a fellow of

Trinity. He held the Beyer Chair of Applied

Mathematics at Manchester from 1919 to 1924, the same position

as had been held by Lamb, and then moved to Imperial College London.

During the Second World War he

was Deputy Scientific Advisor to the Army Council.

In 1946, Chapman was elected to the Sedleian

Chair of Natural Philosophy at Oxford, and was appointed fellow

of The Queen's College,

Oxford. In 1953, on his retirement from Oxford, Chapman took

research and teaching opportunities all over the world, including at

the University of Alaska and

the University of Colorado,

but also as far afield as Istanbul, Cairo,

Prague, and Tokyo. As the Advisory Scientific Director of the University of

Alaska Geophysical Institute from

1951 to 1970, he spent three months of the year in Alaska, usually during winter for research into auroras. Much

of the remainder of the year he spent at the High Altitude Observatory in

Boulder, Colorado. Chapman's most noted

mathematical accomplishments were in the field of stochastic processes (random

processes), especially Markov processes. In his study of Markovian stochastic

processes and their generalizations, Chapman and the Russian Andrey Kolmogorov independently developed the pivotal set

of equations in the field, Chapman is credited with working out, in 1930, the

photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer.

Chapman is recognised as one of the pioneers of solar-terrestrial

physics. This interest stemmed from his early work on

the kinetic theory of gases. Chapman studied magnetic storms and aurorae, developing

theories to explain their relation to the interaction of the Earth's magnetic field with

the solar wind. He disputed and ridiculed the work of Kristian Birkeland and Hannes Alfvén, later adopting Birkeland's theories as his own. Chapman

and his first graduate student, V. C. A.

Ferraro, predicted the presence of the magnetosphere in the early 1930s. They also predicted

characteristics of the magnetosphere that were confirmed 30 years later by

the Explorer 12 satellite.

In 1940, Chapman and a German colleague Julius Bartels published a book in two volumes on

geomagnetism, which was to become the standard text book for the next two

decades In 1946 Chapman coined the term: Aeronomy, which is used today to describe the scientific field

of high-altitude research into atmosphere/space interaction.[ From 1951 to 1954, Chapman was

President of the International

Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).[ Chapman was President of the

Special Committee for the International Geophysical

Year (IGY). The idea of the IGY stemmed from a discussion in

1950 between Chapman and scientists including James Van Allen. The IGY was held in 1957–58, and resulted in

great progress in fields including Earth and space sciences, as well as leading

to the first satellite launches.[




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RARE “Kinetic Theory of Gases

RARE “Kinetic Theory of Gases" Sydney Chapman Hand Signed 3X5 Card

$349.99



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