NOBEL PRIZE ORIGINAL AUTOGRAPHS Roberts & Schally Split Genes Hormones For Sale
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NOBEL PRIZE ORIGINAL AUTOGRAPHS Roberts & Schally Split Genes Hormones:
Two Nobel Prize autographs on 4 X 6 cards with great quotes.
Nobel PrizeRIchardJ. RobertsPhysiology or Medicine1993For The Independent Discovery In1977 Of "Split Genes."
Nobel PrizePhysiology or Medicine1977For Research In Role Of HormonesIn Chemistry Of The Body.Andrew V. SchallyAndrzej Wiktor Schally, also known as Andrew W. Schally, was born on November 20, 1926, in Wilno, Poland. During World War II, Schally had to leave Poland and live among the Jewish-Polish Community in Romania. In 1945, he moved via Italy and France to England and Scotland.
Andrew Schally had his formative education in Scotland and England. In 1950, he joined the National Institute of Medical Research (NIMR, MRC) Mill Hill in London, England. In May 1952, he moved to Montreal, Canada. He received his doctorate in endocrinology from McGill University in 1957. That same year he left for a research career in the United States and worked at Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, until 1962. At Baylor, Schally became Assistant Professor of Physiology and a Senior Research Fellow of the U.S. Public Health Service.
A Canadian citizen when he left Canada, Schally became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1962.
In June 1962, the Veterans Administration (VA), made Schally the chief researcher on the hypothalamus. In December 1962, he was appointed Chief of the Endocrine and Polypeptide Laboratories at the VA Hospital in New Orleans and Associate Professor of Medicine at Tulane University. In 1966, he was made a full professor.
He developed a whole new realm of knowledge concerning the brain’s control over body chemistry. His works were also concentrated on birth control methods and growth hormones. He, as well as Roger Guillemin, described the neurohormone GnRH that controls FSH and LH. He was awarded an honorary Doctoral Degree from Jagiellonian University at Kraków.
In 1977, Andrew Schally was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine, along with Rosalyn Yalow and Roger Guillemin, for their discoveries concerning "the peptide hormone production of the brain.”
The following press release from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences describes Schally' work:
“The discoveries of Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally deal with another sector of peptide hormone physiology and medicine.
The pituitary gland secretes a number of hormones which are transported with the blood to most hormone producing glands in the body. In these, they stimulate their specific function - to produce and release hormones. It has long been known that the central nervous system in some way could modulate endocrine functions and that, probably, the brain stem - the hypothalamus - acted as an intermediary in this process. In some way, information was passed to the hypophysis which, by way of its specific hormones, transferred the information to the other endocrine glands. As early as 1930, it was discovered that small blood vessels connected the hypophysis with the hypothalamus, and that these might be the route of transport of the information from the brain to the hypophysis.
Towards the end of the 1950's, Guillemin and Schally, each in his own laboratory, were able to extract from the hypothalamus of sheep and pigs some compounds which, when administered to pituitary tissue, brought about release of its hormones. One extract made the pituitary release ACTH, another TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), a third one LH and FSH (the gonadotrophic hormones) etc. They termed these substances "releasing factors or hormones", RF or RH. The one inducing the release of TSH, thus was called TSH-RF or TRF.
However, it was not until 1969 that the nature of these hypothalamic factors would be established. Guillemin was working with 5 million hypothalamic fragments from sheep, and Schally with the same amount of material but from pigs. They concentrated their efforts to the search for one of the releasing factors, TRF. After years of struggle, during which the two groups established a formidable race, they stood there one day with 1 mg (!) of a pure substance with one single mode of action: it released TSH from the hypophysis. This was TRF. After another few months the structure of TRF was established. It is an extremely small peptide composed of three amino acids in a special the same year TRF was synthesized by the Guillemin group.
The ice was broken. Within two years LH-RH was isolated, sequenced and synthesized, firstly by Schally and shortly afterwards by Guillemin.
Guillemin's and Schally's discoveries laid the foundations to modern hypothalamic research. The experiences from animal research was rapidly transferred to humans and brought into clinical work. Several new peptides were isolated from the hypothalamus, the foremost one probably being the first inhibitor of pituitary function: somatostatin, which decreases the production of pituitary growth hormone.
As an extension of Guillemin's and Schally's discoveries may be regarded the exciting finding of peptides in the brain with morphine-like activity, the endorphines. Peptides with hormone-like activity have also been identified in other parts of the brain. The central nervous system more and more moves forward as an endocrine organ, which opens fascinating perspectives in medicine. We are looking forward to an enormous development in this field, to which Guillemin and Schally opened the door.
The important discoveries by the 1977 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine has led to a formidable development of their own fields of research. Further, they have opened new vistas within biological and medical research far outside the borders of their own spheres of interest.”
was born in Wilno, Poland on November 30, 1926, being of Polish, Austro-Hungarian, French and Swedish ancestry. My father, a professional soldier trained in the military academies of Vienna, Austria and St. Cyr, France, had to leave his family when the Second World War broke out to fight with the Allied Forces. My life and outlook were influenced by the harsh childhood which I spent in the Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, but I was fortunate to survive the holocaust while living among the Jewish-Polish Community in Roumania. I used to speak Polish, Roumanian, Yiddish, Italian and some German and Russian, but I have almost completely forgotten them, and my French in which I used to excel is also now far from fluent. In 1945, I moved via Italy and France to England and Scotland. In spite of post-war economic and nutritional austerity, the United Kingdom seemed like a paradise to me because of the respect for human rights. Since that time, I have always had a profound friendship for the British. I received my high school diploma in Scotland in 1946 and afterwards studied chemistry in London. I adored English and Scottish association football and I even tried out as an inside forward for some English and Scottish football clubs, but since I could not devote enough time to training I never made regular First Division teams. However, since 1946 I have always stayed in excellent physical shape by swimming daily and practicing other sports. "Mens sana in corpore sano" has always truly been my motto. In England I also developed a great liking for classical music, especially Beethoven, Brahms and Liszt.
My interest in medical research started at the age of 23, when I joined the National Institute of Medical Research (NIMR, MRC) Mill Hill, London, England. I was fortunate to work with and be exposed to the stimulating influences of such scientists as Dr. D. F. Elliott, Sir Charles Harington, Dr. R.R. Porter, Dr. A.J.P. Martin, Dr. R. Pitt-Rivers, Dr. J. Gross, Dr. T. S. Work, Dr. H. Fraenkel-Conrat, and Dr. W. Cornforth, several of whom later won Nobel Prizes for chemistry or physiology and medicine. Although my position was very junior at Mill Hill, my work was appreciated and this was a source of tremendous satisfaction for me, inasmuch as this recognition came from scientists of such caliber. I learned much in those 2 1/2 years, not only technical expertise but also the philosophy of research and a systematic approach to scientific investigations. These years of instruction (1950-1952) were decisive in providing inspiration, training, and laboratory discipline and profoundly influenced the course of my career. In fact, it was at NIMR, Mill Hill where I endured my "baptism of fire" in medical research and became addicted to it. In May, 1952, I moved to Montreal, Canada where I was given the opportunity to work and study at McGill University. There I learned endocrinology from the brilliant lectures by Professor D. L. Thomson and from my work with Dr. M. Saffran in the laboratory of experimental therapeutics of the Allan Memorial Institute of Psychiatry headed by Dr. R. A. Cleghorn. The work at this laboratory was devoted to ACTH and adrenal cortical steroids. That period marked the beginning of my interest in the relationship between brain function and endocrine activity, and it was there in 1954 that my involvement in the hypothalamic field began.
In 1955, using in vitro systems, Dr. M. Saffran and I demonstrated the presence of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in hypothalamic and neurohypophysial tissue. This was the first experimental proof of the existence of hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary function postulated with prophetic insight by Dr. G. W. Harris. I obtained my doctorate at McGill University in May, 1957, and in September of the same year I was able to secure a position which enabled me to continue my work on CRF at Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, where I was associated with Dr. R. Guillemin. My years in Houston (1957-1962) where I was Assistant Professor of Physiology and a Senior Research Fellow of the U.S. Public Health Service were discouraging and frustrating because of problems with the isolation of CRF. Our failure to obtain enough CRF to determine its structure tended to cast doubt on the initial findings. We encountered much skepticism, but I remained unshaken in my confidence in the correctness of the observations on CRF and in the postulation of other hypothalamic hormones regulating anterior pituitary function.
In 1961 I spent about one month at the Institute of Biochemistry in Uppsala with Dr. J. Porath where I gained useful experience in the use of Sephadex and column electrophoresis. I also visited Dr. V. Mutt and the late Professor E. Jorpes in Stockholm, in connection with our collaboration on gastrointestinal hormones, and I was encouraged that they and other astute scientists had confidence in our work and the foresight to appreciate the possible scientific and medical importance of hypothalamic hormones.
I was grateful for the opportunities I was given in the United States, for which I felt a complete allegiance, and in 1962 became a naturalized citizen. When Dr. Joe Meyer, then head of the Veterans Administration (VA) basic research, offered in June, 1962, to set up a VA laboratory devoted to research on the hypothalamus and make me its chief, I accepted since this gave me a clear opportunity to be in complete command of such an effort. The support of a number of individuals, including Dr. E. H. Bresler, then Associate Chief of Staff for Research of the New Orleans VA Hospital, Dr. C. Y. Bowers and Dr. G. Burch of the Department of Medicine of Tulane University School of Medicine, and Dr. W. Locke of the Ochsner Foundation Hospital, was instrumental in helping me establish the laboratory in New Orleans. In December of 1962, I was appointed Chief of the Endocrine and Polypeptide Laboratories at the VA Hospital in New Orleans and Associate Professor of Medicine at Tulane University, and, in 1966, Professor. The earliest members of our 1962 VA-Tulane team were T. W. Redding, W. H. Carter, and M. Tanaka. They have stayed with me all these years, and without their devoted help we could not have resolved the many problems associated with our work on TRH in 1969, LH-RH in 1971, and porcine somatostatin in 1975. Working in a clinical environment, I became more aware of the need for better diagnosis and treatment of patients than I had been before. It occurred to me early that problems with infertility on the one hand and the necessity for population control on the other would make a breakthrough in the control of reproduction particularly desirable from the standpoint of society, and therefore I became especially interested in reproductive endocrinology. To broaden our knowledge of reproductive processes at the brain level, we studied the central effects of contraceptive steroids and clomiphene. In some of the early studies on LH-RH, before its isolation, we collaborated with one of the pioneers of the hypothalamus and the man I always admired deeply, Professor C. H. (Tom) Sawyer and also with Drs. J. Hilliard, D. Holtkamp, A. Parlow and W. F. White.
It was my good fortune that in 1964 Dr. A. J. Kastin and in 1965 Dr. A. Arimura came to join our laboratory. Dr. Abba Kastin was mainly interested in continuing his work on control of release of MSH and in helping us in clinical work on hypothalamic hormones. He quickly became my best friend and a most efficient collaborator. Dr. Akira Arimura was an experienced physiologist and endocrinologist. Because of his great knowledge, enthusiasm and very hard work, he made great contributions in all phases of our program, and also broadened it with many independent ideas, especially in immunology. Other excellent collaborators at that time included Drs. I. Ishida, A. Kuroshima, T. Saito, and S. Sawano from Japan, and Dr. E. E. Muller from Italy.
All during the period since 1962, I had been hard at work on TRH with Cy Bowers and Tom Redding. In 1966, we reported for the first time the isolation of porcine TRH and determined that it contained three amino acids (glutamic acid, histidine, and proline) in equimolar ratio, but did not take full advantage of this original early finding, as we were preoccupied with parallel studies on reproduction and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH). However, when R. Burgus and R. Guillemin announced at the 1969 Tucson, Arizona, conference that they also found the same three amino acids in ovine TRH, I realized that we had the right substance. The same year I established the correct amino acid sequence of porcine TRH with Dr. R. M. G. Nair in New Orleans. Subsequently, with help from Drs. F. Enzmann and J. Bøler working in K. Folkers laboratory in Austin, Texas, we were able to determine the structure of porcine TRH and synthesize it. We have shared the credit with R. Burgus, W. Vale and R. Guillemin, who elucidated the structure of ovine TRH at about the same time.
The identification of TRH removed the skepticism surrounding the work on the hypothalamus and I realized that many workers would now be attracted to the field. We therefore redoubled our efforts on LH-RH.
In 1965, in Mexico City, I met Dr. C. Gual of the National Institute of Nutrition who invited me to collaborate with him in the clinical testing of hypothalamic hormones in Mexico. We took advantage of this invitation and in 1968 demonstrated, with Cy Bowers, that preparations of natural TRH are active in humans. Subsequently, again in collaboration with Carlos Gual, Abba Kastin and I established that highly purified porcine LH-RH unequivocally released LH and FSH in men and women under a variety of conditions. It was clear that LH-RH might be useful clinically and this encouraged us to continue the agonizing effort involved in the isolation of this hormone. Although I consider myself an endocrinologist or neuroendocrinologist, with considerable interest in clinical endocrine research and not a biochemist, I personally carried out the isolation work on TRH, LH-RH, somatostatin, and other hormones. Only a person such as myself with strong faith in the presence of these materials would have the patience to go through the many fastidious steps of the isolation procedure, since the effort required in isolating exceedingly small quantities of gradually purer and purer materials from a crude hypothalamic exctract is so enormous. I was able to isolate a small amount (800 µg) of LH-RH from 160,000 hypothalami and proved it to be a polypeptide. This tiny amount of material was passed to our chemists, Dr. H. Matsuo and Dr. Y. Baba, with suggestions for a structural approach. Since I did not think that amounts of LH-RH on hand would be enough to complete our structural work, I decided to isolate additional amounts of LH-RH. Drs. Matsuo and Baba worked hard and efficiently, and we were able to determine the complete structure of LH-RH with the 800 µg material. After confirming the structure by synthesis, we were in a position to present our findings at the Endocrine Society meeting in San Francisco, California, in June 1971. It was one of the high points in my life to be able to report for the first time the solution to the problem which had preoccupied me and others for so long.
Physiological and subsequently immunological studies with natural and synthetic LH-RH in our laboratory by Drs. A. Arimura, L. Debeljuk, J. Reeves and M. Saito, and with others demonstrated that LH-RH was indeed the physiological hormone. With the synthetic LH-RH readily available, Dr. Kastin and I continued to carry out a variety of clinical studies in Mexico in association with Dr. Gual and later with Drs. A. Zarate and D. Gonzalez-Barcena. I also did parallel clinical tests with Dr. J. Zanartu in Chile and in Argentina with Drs. L. Schwarzstein, N. Aparicio, and the late R. Mancini.
The importance of analogs, particularly with respect to the possibility of developing a new birth control method was uppermost in my mind. I was very fortunate in being able to induce Dr. D. H. Coy, a superb peptide chemist and his wife Esther, also a researcher, to join our laboratory in 1972. More than 300 analogs of LH-RH were synthesized by the Coys with the help of Drs. Y. Hirotsu, K. Nikolics and J. Seprödi in our laboratory between 1972 and 1977. We were particularly interested in stimulatory long-acting superactive analogs for clinical use and in inhibitory analogs which would block LH and FSH release. We were joined in this important work by researchers from many countries. The work of Drs. J. Vilchez from Venezuela, A. de la Cruz from Peru, E. Pedroza from Colombia, and N. Nishi from Japan established in 1976 that the antagonists of LH-RH can indeed completely block ovulation in animals. Very recently with Dr. D. Gonzalez-Barcena in Mexico we showed that these analogs are also active in humans. This of course raises the possibility that such analogs could eventually form the basis of a new birth control method. However, much work is still needed to make my dream of being able to control reproduction at the central level come true.
In 1971, immediately after solving the LH-RH problem, I decided to reinforce our attacks on PIF and GH-RF next, but six years of hard work with Dr. A. Arimura and Drs. J. Sandow from Germany, A. Dupont from Canada and J. Takahara from Japan resulted only in a demonstration that hypothalamic catecholamines and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) may be involved in the control of release of prolactin, but did not yet lead to the development of any clinical agents. In our preoccupation with PIF and GH-RH, we did not work on factors inhibiting growth hormone release but after P. Brazeau and collaborators in 1973 announced the isolation and structure of ovine somatostatin, we purified this hormone from porcine hypothalami, determined its structure and synthesized it. We also carried out much physiological and immunological work (some in collaboration with Dr. F. Labrie in Quebec, Canada), as well as clinical work which convinced us of its importance. Particularly important was the establishment of a radioimmunoassay for somatostatin by Dr. Arimura. The clinical work on somatostatin was carried out mainly in England. Brilliant clinicians Professor R. Hall from the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Professor G. M. Besser of St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London were our leaders of two clinical teams which also included excellent collaborators such as Drs. A. Gomez-Pan, D. Evered, C. Mortimer, S. R. Bloom, and others. These clinical studies in England (based in part on some of our suggestions) showed that somatostatin inhibits the release of GH, TSH, glucagon, insulin, and gastrin. Basic studies carried out in England in collaboration Dr. A. Gomez-Pan and in Poland with Professor S. Konturek showed that somatostatin also inhibits gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and the release of duodenal hormones, secretin and cholecystokinin. Since the immunological work of Dr. Arimura showed the presence of somatostatin in the pancreas, stomach and intestine, we then suggested that this substance may be involved in the control of secretion not only of the pituitary, but also of the pancreas, stomach and duodenum. Since somatostatin has multiple short-lived effects, Drs. D. H. Coy and C. Meyers are achieving considerable success in the synthesis of long-acting and selective analogs of somatostatin, some of which could be more practical clinical agents.
Also among our present projects is the isolation of all the compounds with PIF activity, of PRH, GH-RH, CRF, and other hypothalamic substances. In addition to authoring or co-authoring many publications, I take satisfaction from the fact that I helped Dr. W. Locke write a book for clinical endocrinologists.
Since much work with hypothalamic hormones and their analogs is being carried out in Latin America and Spain, my ability to communicate in Spanish and Portuguese has aided me greatly, and resulted in the formation of many beautiful friendships. However, the greatest reward for learning Spanish and Portuguese came when, in 1974, in the course of my work in Brazil I met a very charming endocrinologist, Ana Maria de Medeiros-Comaru (M.D.). Our friendship soon deepened into love and led to our marriage.
I have had the satisfaction that my work in the hypothalamus was honored by top U.S., Canadian and Spanish awards: Van Meter Prize of the American Thyroid Association; Ayerst-Squibb Award of the U.S. Endocrine Society; William S. Middleton Award, the highest award of the VA; Charles Mickle Award of the University of Toronto; Gairdner Foundation International Award, Canada; Edward T. Tyler Award; Borden Award of the Association of American Medical Colleges; Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, and the Laude Award, Spain. In 1973 I was made a Senior Medical Investigator by the Veterans Administration, an honor reserved for only a few. When I learned about my Nobel Prize, I was too grateful and too moved to be overcome with joy, but that came a few hours later when my friends from all over the world began to phone or wire. However, I do not feel that these prizes will have an adverse effect on my future productivity. I am still as keen as ever to make new discoveries and useful contributions to endocrinology.
From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1977, Editor Wilhelm Odelberg, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1978
This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate.
Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1977
Addendum, April 2005In the years 1972-1978, I developed agonistic analogs of LH-RH (also called GnRH) and in 1981 was the first to show that they inhibit growth of prostate cancer in rats. On this basis, I organized with Dr. George Tolis the first clinical trial with LH-RH agonists in patients with advanced prostate cancer in 1982. This trial demonstrated the clinical efficacy of LH-RH agonists in palliative treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. I then helped develop sustained delivery systems (microcapsules) for agonists of LH-RH and participated in evaluations of their efficacy. Sustained delivery systems of various LH-RH agonists (microcapsules or implants) now provide the preferred method for the treatment of advanced prostate carcinoma. Previous primary endocrine treatment modalities for advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate based on the work of Charles Huggins (Nobel Prize in Medicine for 1966), used since the 1930s, included orchiectomy or administration of estrogens (DBS). However, surgical castration (bilateral orchiectomy) is associated with psychological impact and estrogens such as DES have serious cardiovascular, hepatic and mammotropic side effects. Treatment with LH-RH agonists is as effective as orchiectomy and offers the advantage of avoiding castration. The therapy with agonists of LH-RH is presently the preferred method of treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer and in about 70% of cases, LH-RH agonists are selected for primary treatment.
I helped Prof. R. Hall and Prof. M. Besser in the first clinical evaluations of somatostatin in normal subjects and patients with neuroendocrine tumors in England and I was profoundly influenced by its effects. Based on this experience, I became one of the pioneers in the development of analogs of somatostatin for oncological uses and demonstrated their antitumor activity in animal models of various tumors. I have been credited with influencing the thinking in the field of oncological applications of somatostatin. Analogs of somatostatin are used now for treatment of acromegaly and endocrine tumors, including carcinoid tumors. The fact that few relevant clinical benefits have been obtained in patients with pancreatic, colorectal, prostatic, breast and other cancers treated with somatostatin analogs is due to a low expression of SST receptor subtypes 2 and 5 in these malignancies that preferentially bind octapeptide somatostatin analogs. However, the expression of these subtypes should be high enough to permit therapy with targeted cytotoxic somatostatin analogs synthesized by my group or somatostatin analogs labeled with various radionuclides developed in the meantime in Europe. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogs pioneered in Holland are now extensively used for tumor localization. Among my other major accomplishments is the development of antagonistic analogs of LH-RH, the demonstration of their antitumor activity in experimental cancer models and with my associates of clinical efficacy of these antagonists in patients with prostate cancer, endometriosis and leiomyomas. My late wife Ana Maria Comaru-Schally also showed that antagonists of LH-RH could be used as a therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
My group demonstrated that the receptors for LH-RH, somatostatin and bombesin are present in various tumors, including human prostatic, mammary, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Based on this demonstration of receptors for peptides in various tumors, I started in 1995 the development of modern cytotoxic analogs of LH-RH, bombesin and somatostatin, which can be targeted to peptide receptors on various primary cancers and their metastases. We demonstrated in experimental models of human cancers that these hybrids produce tumor regression or eradication. Because the receptors for these peptides are present on many cancers, targeted chemotherapy based on cytotoxic analogs of these peptides should be more efficacious and less toxic than the currently used systemic chemotherapeutic regimens and might permit dose escalation. My group also developed bombesin antagonists aimed at decreasing EGF receptor levels in tumors and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) antagonists, which suppress IGF-I and -II levels and block tumoral receptors for GH-RH and showed that they inhibit a variety of experimental cancers, including androgen-independent prostate cancers, estrogen independent breast cancers, ductal pancreatic cancers, colorectal cancers, lung cancers and brain tumors. My associates and I also demonstrated that GH-RH, which we found in mammary, ovarian, endometrial lung cancers and other tumors, is probably an autocrine growth factor. Our work suggests that cytotoxic somatostatin analog AN-238, cytotoxic LH-RH analogs AN-152 or AN-207 and GH-RH antagonists could be used in the management of patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma who relapsed androgen ablation. Cytotoxic LH-RH analogs or GH-RH antagonists might also be considered for improvement of primary hormonal therapy for prostate cancer.
In September 2004, my wife Ana Maria Comaru-Schally, M.D., F.A.C.P. died suddenly from thyroid cancer. I was profoundly hurt by the unexpected passing of my wife after 28 years of wonderful marriage, which was preceded by 2 years of an exciting and emotional romance. She was an ideal wife, companion, collaborator and my best friend. She will be sorely missed by me and many friends in various countries. Her death was the hardest blow and the biggest tragedy in my life. I am seeking consolation and comfort by continuing my work in cancer research. I believe that this is what she would want me to do.
In conclusion, since receiving the Nobel Prize, I developed the preferred method for treatment of advanced prostate cancer based on LH-RH agonists. My group synthesized several new classes of antitumor peptides such as LH-RH antagonists, somatostatin analogs, bombesin/GRP antagonists, GH-RH antagonists and targeted cytotoxic analogs of LH-RH, bombesin and somatostatin. I then proposed, and with my associates experimentally demonstrated, the efficacy of new approaches to therapy of prostatic, mammary, ovarian, endometrial, renal, pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer (SCLC and non-SCLC), osteosarcomas, melanomas, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and brain tumors based on these antitumor peptides.
I have been credited with extending the concepts of hormone-dependent tumors beyond the pioneering work of the great Charles Huggins. Hormonal therapies that I proposed are based on the peptide analogs of hypothalamic and other hormones and are relatively free of side effects, in contrast to radiation and chemotherapy. I am gratified that my discoveries have led to many practical clinical applications that are widely used and highly effective. It is my hope that the significance of these discoveries and their applications to oncology will increase in the future.
I now have over 2200 publications, more than 1200 of which were published after I received the Nobel Prize.Andrzej Viktor "Andrew" Schally (born 30 November 1926) is an American endocrinologist of Polish-Jewish descent, who was a corecipient with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Life and careerSchally was born in Wilno, Second Polish Republic (since 1945 Vilnius, Lithuania), as the son of Gen. Brigadier Kazimierz Schally, who was Chief of the Cabinet of President Ignacy Mościcki of Poland, and Maria (Łącka).
In September 1939, when Poland was attacked by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, Schally escaped with the Poland's President Ignacy Mościcki, Prime Minister and the whole cabinet to then neutral Romania, where they were interned.
I was fortunate to survive the holocaust while living among the Jewish-Polish Community in Roumania. I used to speak Polish, Roumanian, Yiddish, Italian and some German and Russian, but I have almost completely forgotten them, and my French in which I used to excel is also now far from fluent.
Immediately after the war, in 1945, he moved via Italy and France to the United Kingdom. Schally received his education in Scotland and England. In 1952, he moved to Canada. He received his doctorate in endocrinology from McGill University in 1957. That same year he left for a research career in the United States where he has worked principally at Tulane University. Schally currently conducts research in Endocrinology at the Miami Veteran's Administration Medical Center in Miami, Fl. A Canadian citizen when he left Canada, Schally became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1962. He was affiliated with the Baylor College of Medicine for some years in Houston, Texas.
He developed a new realm of knowledge concerning the brain's control over the body chemistry. His works also addressed birth control methods and growth hormones. Together with Roger Guillemin he described the neurohormone GnRH that controls FSH and LH.
Schally received an honoris causa Doctors degree from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków.
Recognized as a Fellow of the Kosciuszko Foundation of Eminent Scientists of Polish Origin and Ancestry.
He was married to Margaret Rachel White (divorced), and Ana Maria de Medeiros-Comaru.Sir Richard John Roberts (born 6 September 1943) FRS is an English biochemist and molecular biologist. He was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Phillip Allen Sharp for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene-splicing. He currently works at New England Biolabs.
Contents1 Early life and education2 Career and research3 Awards and honours4 ReferencesEarly life and educationRoberts was born in Derby, the son of Edna (Allsop) and John Roberts, an auto mechanic. When he was four, Roberts' family moved to Bath. In Bath, he attended City of Bath Boys' School. As a child he at first wanted to be a detective and then, when given a chemistry set, a chemist. In 1965 he graduated from the University of Sheffield with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry followed by a PhD in 1969. His thesis involved phytochemical studies of neoflavonoids and isoflavonoids.
Career and researchDuring 1969–1972, he did postdoctoral research at Harvard University. before moving to Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he was hired by James Dewey Watson, a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA and a fellow Nobel laureate. In 1992, he moved to New England Biolabs. The following year, he shared a Nobel Prize with his former colleague at Cold Spring Harbor Phillip Allen Sharp.
Roberts's discovery of the alternative splicing of genes, in particular, has had a profound impact on the study and applications of molecular biology. The realisation that individual genes could exist as separate, disconnected segments within longer strands of DNA first arose in the study of adenovirus, one of the viruses responsible for causing the common cold. Robert's research in this field resulted in a fundamental shift in our understanding of genetics, and has led to the discovery of split genes in higher organisms, including human beings.
Awards and honoursIn 1992, Roberts received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine at Uppsala University, Sweden. After becoming a Nobel Laureate in 1993 he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) by the University of Bath in 1994.
Roberts was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1995 and a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in the same year. In 2005, a multimillion-pound expansion to the chemistry department at the University of Sheffield, where he had been a student, was named after him. A refurbished science department at Beechen Cliff School (previously City of Bath Boys' School) was also named after Roberts, who had donated a substantial sum of his Nobel prize winnings to the school.
Roberts is an atheist and was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto. He was knighted in the 2008 Birthday Honours.
Roberts is a member of the Advisory Board of Patient Innovation (https://patient-innovation.com), a nonprofit, international, multilingual, free venue for patients and caregivers of any disease to share their innovations.
Roberts has been a keynote speaker at the Congress of Future Medical Leaders (2014, 2015, 2016).
He also is the chairman of The Laureate Science Alliance, a non-profit supporting research worldwide.
I was born in 1943, the only child of John and Edna Roberts (née Allsop) in Derby, England. My father was a motor mechanic and my mother a homemaker. We moved to Bath when I was four and so I consider myself a Bathonian. My elementary education was at Christ Church infant school and St. Stephen's junior school. At St. Stephen's I encountered my first real mentor, the headmaster Mr. Broakes. He must have spotted something unusual in me for he spent lots of time encouraging my interest in mathematics. He would produce problems and puzzles for me to solve and I still enjoy the challenge of crossword and logical puzzles. Most importantly, I learned that logic and mathematics are fun! After passing the "dreaded" 11 + exam I moved on to the City of Bath Boys (now Beechen Cliff) School.
At this time I wanted to be a detective, where it seemed they paid you to solve puzzles. This changed quickly when I received a chemistry set as a present. I soon exhausted the experiments that came with the set and started reading about less mundane ones. More interesting apparatus like Bunsen burners, retorts, flasks and beakers were purchased. My father, ever supportive of my endeavors, arranged for the construction of a large chemistry cabinet complete with a formica top, drawers, cupboards and shelves. This was to be my pride and joy for many years. Through my father, I met a local pharmacist who became a source of chemicals that were not in the toy stores. I soon discovered fireworks and other concoctions. Luckily, I survived those years with no serious injuries or burns. I knew I had to be a chemist.
I am a passionate reader, having been tutored very early by my mother. I avidly devoured all books on chemistry that I could find. Formal chemistry at school seemed boring by comparison and my performance was routine. In contrast, I did spectacularly well in mathematics and sailed through classes and exams with ease. During these years at school I also discovered chess, which I loved, and billiards and snooker, which became a consuming passion. At age 15, I easily passed the O-level examinations and then began to specialize in the sciences taking Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. For exercise I discovered the sport of caving and would spend most weekends underground on the nearby Mendips.
From age 16 on I found school boring and failed A-level Physics at my first attempt. This was necessary for University entrance and so I stayed an extra year to repeat it. This time I did splendidly and was admitted to Sheffield University, my first choice because of their excellent Chemistry Department. After Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics in the first year, I opted for Biochemistry as a subsidiary subject in the second year. I loathed it. The lectures merely required rote learning and the laboratory consisted of the most dull experiments imaginable. I was grateful when that year was over and could concentrate wholly on Chemistry. I graduated in 1965 with an upper second class honours degree.
As an undergraduate, David Ollis, the Professor of Organic Chemistry, really caught my imagination. His course emphasized problem solving, not memorization - more puzzles! Fortunately, he accepted me as his Ph.D. student and I began to explore the neoflavonoids found in a piece of heartwood from a Brazilian tree. Two pieces of luck followed. My tree contained more than its fair share of interesting new compounds and I was put in a lab with an exceptional postdoctoral fellow, Kazu Kurosawa, who proved a gifted teacher. Not only did he suggest the right experiments he explained why they should be done. Within one year I had essentially enough for my thesis and an understanding of how to do research. I had the luxury of spending the next two years following my nose, reading and experimenting.
During this time I came across a book, by John Kendrew, that was to change the course of my research career. It described the early history of crystallography and molecular biology focussing on the MRC Laboratory in Cambridge. It was my first exposure to "molecular biology" and I became hooked. For postdoctoral studies, I looked for a laboratory doing biochemistry that might accept an organic chemist and provide a pathway into molecular biology. Luckily, Jack Strominger offered me a position, not in Wisconsin as I had thought, but at Harvard where he had just been appointed Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It was on January 1st, 1969, that my family walked across the runway at Logan Airport with an outside temperature of 4°F and a massive wind blowing, to start a new life.
The next four years were wonderful. Mostly, I learned, although at first I was in a fog. Everyone spoke in acronyms: DNA, RNA, ATP, UDP, GlcNAc. Luckily two Australians, Aubrey Egan and Allen Warth, lived close to my apartment and we would drive in and out of the lab together each day. Those half hour commutes became my biochemistry classroom. Slowly I learned the jargon. A third Australian, Tom Stewart patiently guided me into the world of tRNAs since it was his project that I was to pick up. I was assigned the job of sequencing a tRNA that was involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. In 1969, only a handful of tRNAs had been sequenced previously, mostly by chemical techniques introduced by Holly and his contemporaries. However, within a few months and much reading, I decided that a new method, being pioneered in Fred Sanger's lab in Cambridge, was much better. In late 1970, I had succeeded in making enough pure tRNAGly to start sequencing and set off for a one month sojourn in Cambridge to learn the techniques. What a wonderful time! I don't remember sleeping, but I do remember the excitement of meeting Fred and the other famous researchers, many of whom had featured in Kendrew's book. This was a heady experience that validated my decision to be a molecular biologist.
On my return to Harvard, my small sequencing operation was the first in the Boston area and many researchers came to learn the techniques. My own sequencing was successful and I managed two Nature papers during this postdoctoral period. When it came time to leave Harvard I wanted to return to the UK and applied for a job in Edinburgh. In the meantime, I was approached by Mark Ptashne, who told me that Jim Watson ("the" Watson) was looking for someone to sequence SV40. I had not met Jim previously and I was over-awed when he offered me the job after a 10 minute meeting, during which I mainly listened! It was a challenging project made all the more exciting by Jim's description and his offer of a good salary, money to support a lab and all necessary set-up money. With a month to decide and no word from Edinburgh, I decided the offer was too good to turn down. In September, 1972, I moved to Cold Spring Harbor.
Earlier in 1972, I attended a seminar at Harvard Medical School given by Dan Nathans. He described an enzyme, Endonuclease R, that could cleave DNA into specific pieces. This was to shape much of my subsequent research career. Sanger had developed RNA sequencing because there were plenty of small RNA molecules to practice on, but no suitable DNA molecules. I realized that Nathans' restriction enzyme gave an immediate way to isolate small DNA molecules. Surely there must be more restriction enzymes with different specificities. DNA sequencing seemed within reach and I was exhilarated. Upon moving to Cold Spring Harbor, I set out to make preparations of Endonuclease R and the few other restriction enzymes known at the time. We also began a systematic search for new ones. I also made some DNA, since I had never worked with it before!
A key factor in our restriction enzyme success was a highly talented technician, Phyllis Myers, who joined me in 1973. She became the keeper of our enzyme collection and a valuable resource to scientists around the world. We constantly sent samples to other researchers and were inundated with visitors. Every meeting at Cold Spring Harbor brought a few people carrying tubes of DNA to see if we had an enzyme that would cut it. Three quarters of the world's first restriction enzymes were discovered or characterized in my laboratory. I made a lot of friends in those days!
Plans to sequence SV40 DNA were abandoned shortly after reaching Cold Spring Harbor. Instead we turned our attention to Adenovirus-2 DNA. Ulf Pettersson had brought this system to the laboratory shortly before my arrival and it seemed a good model system because it was similar in size to bacteriophage lambda, where many spectacular advances in prokaryotic molecular biology had taken place. We began to map the DNA. Similar work was being carried out in Joe Sambrook's lab at Cold Spring Harbor and eventually led to the only joint publication I have with Phil Sharp.
In 1974, Richard Gelinas, whom I had first met at Harvard, joined my laboratory to characterize the initiation and termination signals for an Adenovirus-2 mRNA. The idea was to sequence the 5'-end of an mRNA, map its location on a restriction fragment, and then sequence the upstream region. This would be the promoter. Shortly after beginning the project, mRNA caps were discovered and we developed an assay for capped oligonucleotides. All seemed well until we came up with the startling finding that all late mRNAs seemed to begin with the same capped oligonucleotide, which was not encoded on the DNA next to the main body of the mRNA. We had excellent biochemical evidence for this, but real proof was elusive. In March, 1977, I hit on the right experiment to show that our proposed split structure for Adenovirus-2 mRNAs was correct. Louise Chow and Tom Broker, two talented electron microscopists, agreed to collaborate with us on the crucial experiment. We hoped to visualize the split structure by hybridizing an intact mRNA to its two different coding regions. Based on a guess about the location of the coding region for the 5'-end, we made appropriate DNA fragments. The reason for our guess turned out to be wrong, but luckily the fragment worked anyway! Finally, by direct visualization we could see the split genes in the electron microscope.
Our own work turned to an analysis of the sequences involved in RNA splicing. Joe Sambrook and Walter Keller cloned the common leader sequence at the 5'-end of late Adenovirus-2 mRNAs and Sayeeda Zain in my lab sequenced it. Later we undertook the complete sequence of Adenovirus-2 DNA. This required a lot of computer software development and I was fortunate to have Richard Gelinas and Tom Gingeras spearheading this effort. In 1978, this was still a relatively new activity and not considered particularly biological. I had trouble convincing Jim Watson that computers were essential for modern biology and for several years we operated remotely through Stony Brook University. Eventually, I managed to get funding from NIH (Phil Sharp was chairman of a site-visit team that reviewed this grant) and we are still active in this area. My most recent work has been in the area of DNA methylases as outlined in the Nobel Lecture.
In 1992 I moved to New England Biolabs, a small private company of 150 individuals making research reagents, most notably restriction enzymes, and carrying out basic research. In 1974 I had tried unsuccessfully to convince Jim Watson that Cold Spring Harbor should start a company to manufacture and sell restriction enzymes. He declined, thinking there was no money to be made. Soon after this I met Don Comb, the president and founder of New England Biolabs, who had a small basement operation going with himself, his wife and one technician. They were about to start selling the first restriction enzyme. I told him about our rapidly growing collection and was appointed their chief consultant. I am now joint Research Director with my good friend, Ira Schildkraut.
The main theme of my work in biology has centered on the belief that we must know the structure of the molecules we work with if we are to understand how they function. This means knowing the sequence of macromolecules and cataloguing any modifications such as methylation. For proteins, 3-dimensional structure and post-translational modification are crucial. This latter area is a target for my future work. Throughout my life in science I have been fortunate to have friends and family who will bring me back to earth and remind me that there is much in life to be savored besides Science. I enjoy music very much and love to collect and play games, especially video games. I am indebted to my wife Jean, and my children, Alison, Andrew, Christopher and Amanda who have been a source of great joy and comfort.The Nobel Prize (/ˈnoʊbɛl/, Swedish pronunciation: [nʊˈbɛlː]; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. In 1968, Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not being a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics." The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, economics and activism for peace.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Economic Prizes were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 24 organizations, and 892 individuals. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the peace prize, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, £836,000 or ₹72,693,900.) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, and later in 18 carat green gold plated with a 24 carat gold coating.
The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.Contents1 History1.1 Nobel Foundation1.1.1 Formation of Foundation1.1.2 Foundation Capital and Cost1.2 First prizes1.3 Second World War1.4 Prize in Economic Sciences2 Award process2.1 Nominations2.2 Selection2.3 Posthumous nominations2.4 Recognition time lag3 Award ceremonies3.1 Nobel Banquet3.2 Nobel lecture4 Prizes4.1 Medals4.2 Diplomas4.3 Award money5 Controversies and criticisms5.1 Controversial recipients5.2 Overlooked achievements5.3 Emphasis on discoveries over inventions5.4 Gender disparity6 Specially distinguished laureates6.1 Multiple laureates6.2 Family laureates7 Cultural impact8 Refusals and constraints9 Legacy10 See also11 References11.1 Notes11.2 Sources11.3 Bibliography12 Further reading13 External linksHistoryA black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair.Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, which was titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper.Alfred Nobel (About this sound listen (help·info)) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old.
Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million, €150 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes. Because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organised the award of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated. These were Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded; and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved.
Nobel FoundationFormation of FoundationMain article: Nobel FoundationA paper with stylish handwriting on it with the title "Testament"Alfred Nobel's will stated that 94% of his total assets should be used to establish the Nobel Prizes.According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity.
The Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize. 
The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, and according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates. In many ways, the Nobel Foundation is similar to an investment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953). Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor (c. US$560 million).
According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions. An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors.
Foundation Capital and CostThe capital of the Nobel foundation today is invested 50 % in shares, 20 % bonds and 30 % other investments (e.g. hedge funds or real estate). The distribution can vary by 10 percent. Beginning of 2008 64 % of the funds were invested mainly in US american and European stocks. 20 % were bonds, 12% real estate and hedge fonds.
2011 the total cost was approximately 120 million krona. 50 million krona was the prize money. Further cost to pay institutions and persons engaged in giving the prize were 27,4 million krona. The events during the Nobel week in Stockholm and Oslo cost 20,2 million krona. The administration, Nobel symposium, and similar had cost of 22.4 million krona. The cost of the Economic Sciences price of 16.5 Million krona is paid by the Swedish Riks bank.
First prizesA black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair.Wilhelm Röntgen received the first Physics Prize for his discovery of X-rays.Once the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the Nobel Committees began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently, they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions.
The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard's work on cathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize. In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize." The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for Jacobus van 't Hoff. Van 't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics.
The Swedish Academy chose the poet Sully Prudhomme for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists, and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoy to be awarded. Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferred Victorian literature and thus selected a Victorian poet. The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.
The first Nobel Peace Prize went to the Swiss Jean Henri Dunant for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiating the Geneva Convention, and jointly given to French pacifist Frédéric Passy, founder of the Peace League and active with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization.
Second World WarIn 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes. Each man was later able to receive the diploma and medal. Even though Sweden was officially neutral during the Second World War, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940 to 1942, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace.
During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile. The remaining members escaped persecution from the Germans when the Nobel Foundation stated that the Committee building in Oslo was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden. These members kept the work of the Committee going, but did not award any prizes. In 1944, the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again.
Prize in Economic SciencesMain article: Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
Map of Nobel laureates by countryIn 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honor of Nobel. The following year, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes." The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes.
Award processThe award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes; the main difference is in who can make nominations for each of them.
File:Announcement Nobelprize Chemistry 2009-3.ogvThe announcement of the laureates in Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 by Gunnar Öquist, permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesFile:Announcement Nobelprize Literature 2009-1.ogv2009 Nobel Prize in Literature announcement by Peter Englund in Swedish, English, and GermanNominationsNomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. Regarding the Peace Prize, inquiries are also sent to governments, former Peace Prize laureates, and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award. The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names. The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.
SelectionThe Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions. The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote. A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals.
Posthumous nominationsAlthough posthumous nominations are not presently permitted, individuals who died in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented. On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced; however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M. Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously. The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged.
Recognition time lagNobel's will provided for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year". Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries. However, some of those early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer. To avoid repeating this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time. According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, "the criterion 'the previous year' is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident."
A room with pictures on the walls. In the middle of the room there is a wooden table with chairs around it.The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel CommitteeThe interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement. The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example, 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts. However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events. For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords.
Awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution. Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died.
Award ceremoniesTwo men standing on a stage. The man to the left is clapping his hands and looking towards the other man. The second man is smiling and showing two items to an audience not seen on the image. The items are a diploma which includes a painting and a box containing a gold medal. Behind them is a blue pillar clad in flowers.A man in his fifties standing behind a desk with computers on it. On the desk is a sign reading "Kungl. Vetensk. Akad. Sigil".Left: Barack Obama after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo City Hall from the hands of Norwegian Nobel Committee Chairman Thorbjørn Jagland in 2009; Right: Giovanni Jona-Lasinio presenting Yoichiro Nambu's Nobel Lecture at Aula Magna, Stockholm in 2008Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony. The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events. The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies' are held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel banquet following immediately at Stockholm City Hall. The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), at the auditorium of the University of Oslo (1947–1989), and at Oslo City Hall (1990–present).
The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. At first, King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. It is said that he changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden.
Nobel BanquetMain article: Nobel BanquetA set table with a white table cloth. There are many plates and glasses plus a menu visible on the table.Table at the 2005 Nobel Banquet in StockholmAfter the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held in the Blue Hall at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests.
The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Norway at the Oslo Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the President of the Storting, the Swedish prime minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend.
Nobel lectureAccording to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize. The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format. These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize. Some have happened even later. For example, US President Theodore Roosevelt received the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office. The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates.
PrizesMedalsIt was announced on 30 May 2012 that the Nobel Foundation had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Formerly, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by Myntverket (the Swedish Mint) from 1902 to 2010. Myntverket, Sweden's oldest company, ceased operations in 2011 after 1,017 years. In 2011, the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design. For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal. The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design.
A heavily decorated paper with the name "Fritz Haber" on it.Laureates receive a heavily decorated diploma together with a gold medal and the prize money. Here Fritz Haber's diploma is shown, which he received for the development of a method to synthesise ammonia.All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Since then, they have been struck in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about 175 grams (0.386 lb) for each medal. The diameter is 66 millimetres (2.6 in) and the thickness varies between 5.2 millimetres (0.20 in) and 2.4 millimetres (0.094 in). Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft. During World War II, the medals of German scientists Max von Laue and James Franck were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, Hungarian chemist (and Nobel laureate himself) George de Hevesy dissolved them in aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), to prevent confiscation by Nazi Germany and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.
DiplomasNobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden, or in the case of the peace prize, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them. The diploma contains a picture and text in Swedish which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas.
Award moneyThe laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded. The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The purse has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was 880,000 SEK per prize (c. 2.6 million SEK altogether, US$350,000 today). In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million). In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK. If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others. It is common for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes.
Controversies and criticismsMain article: Nobel Prize controversiesControversial recipients
When it was announced that Henry Kissinger was to be awarded the Peace Prize, two of the Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigned in protest.Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize.
Peace PrizeAmong the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ. This led to the resignation of two Norwegian Nobel Committee members. Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities. Critics sympathetic to the North announced that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite, responsible for widening the war. Those hostile to the North and what they considered its deceptive practices during negotiations were deprived of a chance to criticise Lê Đức Thọ, as he declined the award. 
Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine. Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned. Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers.
Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to Barack Obama in 2009. Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President of the United States, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months. Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award, or worthy of the company it would place him in. Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not secured the achievements to yet merit such an accolade. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, also prompted accusations of a left-wing bias.
Literature PrizeThe award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art." He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure." The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post, many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work. This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric.
Science prizesIn 1949, the neurologist António Egas Moniz received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy. The previous year, Dr. Walter Freeman had developed a version of the procedure which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern medical ethics. Endorsed by such influential publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee declined to award a prize in 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate."The Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mahatma Gandhi was nominated for the Peace Prize in 1937–39, 1947, and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948. Later, members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee expressed regret that he was not given the prize. Geir Lundestad, Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee in 2006, said, "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question". In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year. Later, when the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi." Other high-profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been missed out. Foreign Policy lists Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, and Corazon Aquino as people who "never won the prize, but should have."
In 1965, UN Secretary General U Thant was informed by the Norwegian Permanent Representative to the UN that he would be awarded that year's prize and asked whether or not he would accept. He consulted staff and later replied that he would. At the same time, Chairman Gunnar Jahn of the Nobel Peace prize committee, lobbied heavily against giving U Thant the prize and the prize was at the last minute awarded to UNICEF. The rest of the committee all wanted the prize to go to U Thant, for his work in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis, ending the war in the Congo, and his ongoing work to mediate an end to the Vietnam War. The disagreement lasted three years and in 1966 and 1967 no prize was given, with Gunnar Jahn effectively vetoing an award to U Thant.James Joyce, one of the controversial omissions of the Literature PrizeThe Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. Adam Kirsch has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism. The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors. This tendency towards European authors still leaves some European writers on a list of notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize, including Europe's Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, J. R. R. Tolkien, Émile Zola, Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, James Joyce, August Strindberg, Simon Vestdijk, Karel Čapek, the New World's Jorge Luis Borges, Ezra Pound, John Updike, Arthur Miller, Mark Twain, and Africa's Chinua Achebe.
Candidates can receive multiple nominations the same year. Gaston Ramon received a total of 155 nominations in physiology or medicine from 1930 to 1953, the last year with public nomination data for that award as of 2016. He died in 1963 without being awarded. Pierre Paul Émile Roux received 115 nominations in physiology or medicine, and Arnold Sommerfeld received 84 in physics. These are the three most nominated scientists without awards in the data published as of 2016. Otto Stern received 79 nominations in physics 1925–43 before being awarded in 1943.
The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial. When a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that did not recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt. According to one of the nominees for the prize in physics, the three person limit deprived him and two other members of his team of the honor in 2013: the team of Carl Hagen, Gerald Guralnik, and Tom Kibble published a paper in 1964 that gave answers to how the cosmos began, but did not share the 2013 Physics Prize awarded to Peter Higgs and François Englert, who had also published papers in 1964 concerning the subject. All five physicists arrived at the same conclusion, albeit from different angles. Hagen contends that an equitable solution is to either abandon the three limit restriction, or expand the time period of recognition for a given achievement to two years.
Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. The Economics Prize was not awarded to Fischer Black, who died in 1995, when his co-author Myron Scholes received the honor in 1997 for their landmark work on option pricing along with Robert C. Merton, another pioneer in the development of valuation of stock options. In the announcement of the award that year, the Nobel committee prominently mentioned Black's key role.
Political subterfuge may also deny proper recognition. Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann, who co-discovered nuclear fission along with Otto Hahn, may have been denied a share of Hahn's 1944 Nobel Chemistry Award due to having fled Germany when the Nazis came to power. The Meitner and Strassmann roles in the research was not fully recognised until years later, when they joined Hahn in receiving the 1966 Enrico Fermi Award.
Emphasis on discoveries over inventionsAlfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind." He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important 'discovery' or 'invention' within the field of physics." Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in Nature and Technoetic Arts, have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society.
Gender disparityIn terms of the most prestigious awards in STEM fields, only a small proportion have been awarded to women. Out of 210 laureates in Physics, 181 in Chemistry and 216 in Medicine between 1901 and 2018, there were only three female laureates in physics, five in chemistry and 12 in medicine.  
Specially distinguished laureatesMultiple laureatesA black and white portrait of a woman in profile.Marie Curie, one of four people who have received the Nobel Prize twice (Physics and Chemistry)Four people have received two Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for her work on radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium, making her the only person to be awarded a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Linus Pauling was awarded the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances. Pauling was also awarded the Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism against nuclear weapons, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity. Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.
Two organizations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981.
Family laureatesThe Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates. Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her. Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 on that organisation's behalf.
Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates. The husband-and-wife team of Gerty Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori shared the 1947 Prize in Physiology or Medicine as did the husband-and-wife team of May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser in 2014 (along with John O'Keefe). J. J. Thomson was awarded the Physics Prize in 1906 for showing that electrons are particles. His son, George Paget Thomson, received the same prize in 1937 for showing that they also have the properties of waves. William Henry Bragg and his son, William Lawrence Bragg, shared the Physics Prize in 1915 for inventing the X-ray spectrometer. Niels Bohr was awarded the Physics prize in 1922, as did his son, Aage Bohr, in 1975. Manne Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1924, was the father of Kai Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1981. Hans von Euler-Chelpin, who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of Ulf von Euler, who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970. C. V. Raman was awarded the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who was awarded the same prize in 1983. Arthur Kornberg received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959; Kornberg's son, Roger later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006. Jan Tinbergen, who was awarded the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize. Alva Myrdal, Peace Prize laureate in 1982, was the wife of Gunnar Myrdal who was awarded the Economics Prize in 1974. Economics laureates Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow were brothers-in-law. Frits Zernike, who was awarded the 1953 Physics Prize, is the great-uncle of 1999 Physics laureate Gerard 't Hooft.
Cultural impactBeing a symbol of scientific or literary achievement that is recognisable worldwide, the Nobel Prize is often depicted in fiction. This includes films like The Prize and Nobel Son about fictional Nobel laureates as well as fictionalised accounts of stories surrounding real prizes such as Nobel Chor, a film based on the unsolved theft of Rabindranath Tagore's prize.
Refusals and constraintsA black and white portrait of a man in a suit and tie. Half of his face is in a shadow.Richard Kuhn, who was forced to decline his Nobel Prize in ChemistryTwo laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form." Lê Đức Thọ, chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords, declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam.
During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying "this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award." The Academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it back until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf. Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in Burma; Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012. Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners, and he was unable to accept the prize in his lifetime.
LegacyThe memorial symbol "Planet of Alfred Nobel" was opened in Dnipropetrovsk University of Economics and Law in 2008. On the globe, there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing of military strategic missiles.Andrew V. Schally, in full Andrew Victor Schally, (born November 30, 1926, Wilno, Poland [now Vilnius, Lithuania]), Polish-born American endocrinologist and corecipient, with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Yalow, of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He was noted for isolating and synthesizing three hormones that are produced by the region of the brain known as the hypothalamus; these hormones control the activities of other hormone-producing glands.
Schally fled Poland with his family in 1939. He attended the University of London and worked for three years at the National Institute for Medical Research in London before traveling to Montreal to enter McGill University. He graduated in 1955 and two years later took a Ph.D. in biochemistry. From 1957 to 1962 he was associated with Baylor University in Houston, Texas, and in 1962 he became a U.S. citizen. That same year Schally was made chief of endocrine and polypeptide laboratories at the Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana. At the same time he joined the medical faculty of the Tulane University School of Medicine, becoming a professor in 1967. He became senior medical investigator with the VA in 1973.
Among Schally’s chief accomplishments were the synthesis of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), the isolation and synthesis of LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone), and studies of the action of the peptide somatostatin. His research helped elucidate pathways of hormone regulation in males and females and contributed to the development of fertility treatments and contraceptives. In 1975 Schally and Guillemin received the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award.