BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS IN SOUTH AFRICA by Steve Biko FIRST EDITION first printing For Sale
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BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS IN SOUTH AFRICA by Steve Biko FIRST EDITION first printing:
Black Consciousnessin South Africaby Steve BikoMillard Arnold, ed.New York: Random House,(1978)
First printing of the first American edition
Cloth spine hardcover, xxxv and 298 pages
Near fine condition,but with a remainder stamp on the bottom edge
In a slightly worn and torn dustjacketwhich is still quite good or betterin a new Brodart mylar dustjacket protectorthat I put on the dustjacket myself
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s.....
.....Influenced by the Martinican philosopher Frantz Fanon and the African-American Black Power movement, Biko and his compatriots developed Black Consciousness as the South African Students' Organisation's official ideology. The movement campaigned for an end to apartheid and the transition of South Africa toward universal suffrage and a socialist economy. It organised Black Community Programmes (BCPs) and focused on the psychological empowerment of black people. Biko believed that black people needed to rid themselves of any sense of racial inferiority, an idea he expressed by popularizing the slogan "black is beautiful". In 1972, he was involved in founding the Black People's Convention (BPC) to promote Black Consciousness ideas among the wider population. The government came to see Biko as a subversive threat and placed him under a banning order in 1973, severely restricting his activities. He remained politically active, helping organise BCPs such as a healthcare centre and a crèche in the Ginsberg area. During his ban he received repeated anonymous threats, and was detained by state security services on several occasions.
Following his arrest in August 1977, Biko was severely beaten by state security officers, resulting in his death. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral......