1932 Signed LITHOGRAPH Russian RYBACK Jewish AVANT GARDE Shtetl KLEZMER Judaica For Sale

1932 Signed LITHOGRAPH Russian RYBACK Jewish AVANT GARDE Shtetl KLEZMER Judaica
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1932 Signed LITHOGRAPH Russian RYBACK Jewish AVANT GARDE Shtetl KLEZMER Judaica:
$375.00


DESCRIPTION: Up for sale is an ORIGINAL colorful HAND SIGNED StoneLITHOGRAPH , Depicting a JEWISH THEME taken from the DAILY STETL - SHTETL LIFE of a BAND of KLEZMER Yiddish PLAYERS.The COLORFUL ORIGINAL PIECE isHAND SIGNED with pencil ( "I.RYBACK " ) by the artist , The renowned JEWISH - RUSSIANAVANT GARDE artist ISSACHAR BER RYBACK . The COLORFUL lithograph belongs to RYBACK lithographs 1932 cycle of “MONVILLAGE” ( My Village or My Stetl ) , That whole cycle is known to consists of 250 copies.This copy belongs to a limited edition of 25 copies of ARTIST PROOF - PROUVE D'ARTISTE and is numbered V/XXV .Once examining each of these pieces of this cycle , One can easily determine that this one is no doubt one of the MOST BEAUTIFUL of them all.The sheet size is around 19.5 x 26". The actual lithograph sizeis around 16 x 22" . RYBACK has signed with pencil "Y. RYBACK" at bottom right . Very good condition. Very thick and heavy lithographic paper. ( Please look at scan for actual AS IS images) Will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed tube.

AUTHENTICITY: ThisSTONE LITHOGRAPHis anORIGINALca 1932 hand signed lithograph, NOT a reproduction or a reprint , Itholds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.

PAYMENTS : Paymentmethod accepted : Paypal & All credit cards.SHIPPMENT :SHIPPworldwide via registered airmail is $29 . Will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealedtube. Handling around 5-10 days after payment.

Issachar Ber Ryback– a painter, a graphic, a sculptor, a scene painter, and an art critic. He was born on February 2, 1897 in Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovograd, Ukraine). Though his father originated from a high-born Chassid family, he was a follower of Haskala and an admirer of the Russian culture, and tried to foster love of this culture in his children. Nevertheless, he sent his son to the "heder", though rather late, only at the age of 10, because due to his delayed development and unhealthiness Ryback lacked speech habits nearly till he was nine. He studied in the "heder" for slightly more than a year, dedicating most of his time to the evening drawing classes for workers attached to the local factory, which he attended in secret. At the age of 11 he entered the Yelisavetgrad courses for scene painters, and having completed the course, was working since 1909 in an artel (co-operative unit) that dealt with interior paintings of public and church buildings. The money he earned in the artel permitted him to become independent and continue his artistic education, despite his father's resistance. In 1911, Ryback was admitted to the Kiev School of Arts, Faculty of Painting, and graduated in 1916. At that period he became a member of the non-formal group created by the school Jewish painters that included, in particular, Boris Aronson, Alexander Tyshler, Solomon Nikritin, Mark Epstein, and Isaac Rabinovich, who later became the well-known artists. They all were consolidated by the idea of keen national self-identity and interest to various modernistic trends in art. Particular features of their world outlook were influenced, on the one hand, by the ideology of the so-called Kiev Group of Yiddish men of letters: David Bergelson, Nachman Mayzil, Yehezkiel Dobrushin, David Hofstein, etc., who were the theoreticians and the creators of the "modern" Jewish culture and literature. On the other hand, Ryback, similarly to the other, close-spirited young Jewish painters, established close links with Alexander Bogomazov and Alexandra Exter, who lived then in Kiev and were among the leading painters of the Russian avant-garde. In 1913-1914 Ryback attended classes in Exter's private studio. In 1915, at the Kiev Spring Exhibition, he for the first time presented his paintings, most of them being inspired by Jewish topics but in a modernistic style. In summer 1916, Ryback, together with El Lisitzky, was commissioned by the Jewish Historical and Ethnographic Society to travel all over Ukrainian and Byelorussian small towns (stetln) and copy the paintings in wooden synagogues and carved gravestones on the Jewish cemeteries. This trip awoke Ryback's interest in Jewish folk art and from that time on, he started regular collection and copying of the art samples. In spring 1917, Ryback participated in the Moscow Exhibition of Jewish painters and sculptors, and the critics assessed him as "one of the most brilliant and ingenious artists". The same year, Ryback participated in the launching of the Kiev Branch of the Jewish Society for the Fine Art Encouragement. In spring 1918, he became a founder of the Culture League Artistic Division. It was the organization established at that period in Ukraine for the development of new Jewish culture in Yiddish language. In 1918-1919, Ryback taught drawing and painting at the Kiev Jewish Children's Studio attached to the Artistic Division, designed a number of stamps for Jewish publishing houses and made artistic design of the Eygns, a literary almanac in Yiddish. Besides, he prepared scenery sketches and scale model for the pioneering production of the Culture League Theater Studio that have foreseen some of the Constructivist set design discoveries. In summer 1919, in the Baginen, the Kiev Yiddish-language magazine, in collaboration with Boris Aronson, Ryback published The Ways of Jewish Painting paper, which served as a peculiar manifesto of Jewish avant-garde art. The paper authors were of opinion that the art should represent the synthesis of the Jewish artistic tradition and the achievements of the European radical modernism. In conformity with the program stated, Ryback himself painted a number of works where Jewish symbols and folk art motifs were intertwined with the avant-garde techniques of image plotting. At the same period, he created a series of works dedicated to the Jewish pogroms in Ukraine – in one of such pogroms his father was murdered. In spring 1920, Ryback was one of the organizers and participants of the exhibition held by the Culture League Artistic Division in Kiev. Soon after the exhibition closing, in April, he relocated to Moscow, where he was living for about a year. Within that period he participated in the activities of the Circle of Jewish Writers and Painters, and collaborated with the Moscow Jewish Chamber Theater. In April 1921, Ryback left Russia and for a number of months, waiting for his entry visa for Berlin, resided in Kovno (now – Kaunas). There he designed a couple of books in Yiddish and worked at the Lithuanian Culture League institutions. In October he arrived in Berlin and began his active participation in the international and Jewish cultural life. In 1921-1924, Ryback was the Novembergruppe member and took part in its exhibitions; he also exhibited his works at the Berlin Sezession and Juryfreie Kunstshau exhibitions. In 1922, together with Yankel Adler and Henryck Berlevi, Ryback (as the representative of the Eastern European Jewish painters) participated in the preparation and conduct of the congress of the Union of Progressive International Artists (Dusseldorf, May 29-31, 1922). Jointly with other Jewish painters such as Nathan Altman and Joseph Chaikov, Ryback collaborated with Jewish writers in Berlin and participated in their cultural events. The same year he made artistic design of three books by Miriam Margolin – Fairy Tales for Small Children in Yiddish. In parallel, Ryback of that period was engaged in artistic criticism, publishing reviews of various exhibitions and papers on painters in German and Jewish newspapers. He also cooperated with German Jewish publishing houses and performed orders for artistic works from certain Jewish organizations, specifically ORT. In 1923, the Shvelln, a Berlin Jewish Publishing House, published Ryback's graphical album named Stetl. A year after, his Jewish Types of Ukraine lithographic album saw the light. These two graphic series were based on Ryback's impressions and recollections of his 1916 trip along the Ukrainian and Byelorussian stetln. From December 1923 until January 1924 he had his solo exhibition in Berlin, which revealed Ryback's achievements as the original interpreter of Cubism. In December 1924 he came back to Moscow as he was invited by the Jewish Studio of the Byelorussian Theater to make stage design of a theater play. Also, in early 1925 Ryback made stage design of the In bren and Purimspiel plays at the Ukrainian State Jewish theater of Kharkov. Soon after that, he undertook a prolonged trip along the Jewish kolkhozes of Ukraine and Crimea. The trip resulted in the At the Jewish Fields of Ukraine album, which was published in 1926 in Paris where Ryback finally relocated in early 1926. Immediately, he began to play an outstanding role in the artistic life of the French capital, which was evidenced by his two one-man exhibitions in the Galerie aux Quatre Chemins (1928) and in the Galerie L’Art Contemporain (1929). His painting style underwent changes in that period: Ryback passed from the Cubist stylistics to the Expressionist colorist painting a la Ėcole de Paris. He won recognition beyond the French borders as well. In 1930 his one-man show took place in the Hague, in 1931, in Rotterdam, in 1932, in Brussels and Antwerp. In 1932, a folder of etchings based on his Shadows of the Past drawings was published in Paris and its characters showed Ryback's permanent adherence to the Jewish theme. It was also witnessed by his ceramic sculptures created in his last years of life. His ceramic exposition was held in early 1935 in Musée National Céramique de Sèrves, and later the Museum purchased some of Ryback's sculptures for his collection. In February 1935, at the invitation of the Cambridge University Artistic Society, Ryback went to England to the opening of his exhibition. On his way to Cambridge he stopped in London, where a small exhibition of Ryback's works was open for the representatives of local Jewish public and culture at the house of Leah L.Gildesheim, a Jewish public figure. In April 1935, the exposition of his works was opened in Cambridge and was highly praised by the British art critics. In May 1935, Ryback returned to Paris, full of creative ideas that he did not succeed to realize. Due to dramatic worsening of his severe chronic disease he was forced to go to the hospital, where he spent the last months of his life. In fact, the dying painter's friends had enough time to hold the exhibition of his works in a Paris gallery. Ryback took part in the exhibition preparation even saying in hospital, but he was unable to appear at the opening. Soon after the exhibition closed, Ryback passed away, on December 22, 1935. ******* IsIssachar ber Ryback (1897-1935) was born in Yelizavetgrad. He attended the Art Academy in Kiev from 1911-1916 and was an important contributor to the Kiev art scene until 1921 when he moved to Berlin where he participated in the historically important Berlin Secession exhibit. In 1926 he moved to Paris, dying there on the eve of an important retrospective exhibition of his work organized by Wildenstein. Much of his collection was donated for the establishment of the Ryback Museum of Bat Yam in Israel. Ryback was an important member of the Russian Jewish, modernist movement that included Lissitsky, Altman, Aronson and Chagall, all of whom were seeking to revitalize Jewish art during a period which saw the cultural efflorescence of Yiddish literature, music, theater, and art. ********* Ryback was born in the Ukraine and attended the Kiev Art Institute. He worked with El Lissitzky on an ethnographic mission to record the life and artifacts of Jews in small Russian towns. He was a member of avant-garde movements in Russia and later in Germany. Ryback experimented with a modified form of Cubism, using structures to express emotions while pursuing his interest in folklore (S.T. Goodman, ed., Russian Jewish Artists, New York, 1995, p. 218). ******* Born in 1897 in Yelizavetgrad (Ukraine), Ryback studied at the Kiev Academy in Moscow from 1911 – 1916. He initially experimented with Cubism and then began painting Jewish subject matter in the 1920s when critics and collectors began to appreciate his analytic Cubism and recognize his importance in the Russian vanguard movement. In 1921 he moved to Berlin, where he participated in the “Der Sturm” group. He was invited back to Moscow in 1925 to design costumes for the Moscow Theatre, before moving to Paris in 1926. There he adopted a new style of Realism, portraying Russian Jewish “shtetl” life, bringing out the forceful, distinctive character of his Yiddish-speaking subjects without resorting to sentimentalism. Ryback was an important member of the Russian Jewish, modernist movement that included Lissitsky, Altman, Aronson and Chagall. Edouard Roditi said of him, “Ryback may be generally recognized as an artist whose genius bears comparison only with that of Chagall.” He died suddenly in Paris in 1935, a few days after the opening of a retrospective exhibition of his work organized by the Wildenstein Gallery. ******* Graphic artist, painter, stage designer and art critic. Born in Elisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad), Ryback studied at Kyiv College of Art and at the studios of Alexandra Ekster (1911-1916). In 1916, according to the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society’s assignment, Ryback and El Lissitzky visited a number of towns in Ukraine and Belorus, where they copied the murals in the wooden synagogues and the carved tombstones on Jewish cemeteries. In 1917 Ryback took part in the Exhibition of Jewish Painters and Sculptors in Moscow. Reviewers wrote that he was one of the “most original and colorful painters”. In Kyiv, Ryback helped organizing Kyiv branch of the Jewish Society for Furthering of Arts (1917), of the Kultur-Lige Art Section (1918) and of the 1st Jewish Art Exhibition. In 1919 Ryback and Boris Aronson published the programmatic essay “Paths of Jewish Painting”. In 1920 Ryback after the moved to Moscow, where he lived for about a year. In 1921 Ryback moved to Berlin, where he became a member of the November Group and published two albums of graphic works, “Shtettl” (1923) and “Jewish Types of Ukraine” (1924). After his return to the USSR in 1924, he created decorations for the Ukrainian State Jewish Theater in Kharkiv and undertook a long journey through Jewish kolkhozes of Ukraine and Crimea, resulting in an album titled “In the Jewish Fields of Ukraine”, published in 1926 in Paris. In the beginning of same year Ryback moved to Paris and soon began to play a noticeable role in the artistic life of the French capital. In the late 1920s – early 1930s he had a number of personal exhibitions in various Parisian galleries. In 1932 a folio of prints of his drawings entitled “Shadows of the Past” were published. Various themes of this published demonstrated Ryback's unrelenting interest towards Jewish topics. This is confirmed by the ceramic sculptures which Ryback created in the last years of his life. ******* The Yiddish Book Collection of the Russian Avant-Garde contains books published between the years 1912-1928 by many of the movement’s best known artists. The items here represent only a portion of Yale's holdings in Yiddish literature. The Beinecke, in collaboration with the Yale University library Judaica Collection, continues to digitize and make Yiddish books available online. With the Russian Revolution of 1917, prohibitions on Yiddish printing imposed by the Czarist regime were lifted. Thus, the early post-revolutionary period saw a major flourishing of Yiddish books and journals. The new freedoms also enabled the development of a new and radically modern art by the Russian avant-garde. Artists such as Mark Chagall, Joseph Chaikov, Issachar Ber Ryback, El (Eliezer) Lisitzsky and others found in the freewheeling artistic climate of those years an opportunity Jews had never enjoyed before in Russia: an opportunity to express themselves as both Modernists and as Jews. Their art often focused on the small towns of Russia and Ukraine where most of them had originated. Their depiction of that milieu, however, was new and different. Jewish art in the early post-revolutionary years emerged with the creation of a secular, socialist culture and was especially cultivated by the Kultur-Lige, the Jewish social and cultural organizations of the 1920s and 1930s. One of the founders of the first Kultur-Lige in Kiev in 1918 was Joseph Chaikov, a painter and sculptor whose books are represented in the Beinecke’s collection. The Kultur-Lige supported education for children and adults in Jewish literature, the theater and the arts. The organization sponsored art exhibitions and art classes and also published books written by the Yiddish language’s most accomplished authors and poets and illustrated by artists who in time became trail blazers in modernist circles. This brief flowering of Yiddish secular culture in Russia came to an end in the 1920s. As the power of the Soviet state grew under Stalin, official culture became hostile to the experimental art that the revolution had at first facilitated and even encouraged. Many artists left for Berlin, Paris and other intellectual centers. Those that remained, like El Lisitzky, ceased creating art with Jewish themes and focused their work on furthering the aims of Communism. Tragically, many of them perished in Stalin’s murderous purges. The Artists Eliezer Lisitzky (1890–1941), better known as El Lisitzky, was a Russian Jewish artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. He was one of the most important figures of the Russian avant-garde, helping develop Suprematism with his friend and mentor, Kazimir Malevich. He began his career illustrating Yiddish children's books in an effort to promote Jewish culture. In 1921, he became the Russian cultural ambassador in Weimar Germany, working with and influencing important figures of the Bauhaus movement. He brought significant innovation and change to the fields of typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim. However, as he grew more involved with creating art work for the Soviet state, he ceased creating art with Jewish themes. Among the best known Yiddish books illustrated by the artist is Sikhes Hulin by the writer and poet Moshe Broderzon and Yingel Tsingle Khvat, a children’s book of poetry by Mani Leyb. Both works have been completely digitized and can be found here. Joseph Chaikov (1888-1979) was a Russian sculptor, graphic artist, teacher, and art critic. Born in Kiev, Chaikov studied in Paris from 1910 to 1913. Returning to Russia in 1914, he became active in Jewish art circles and in 1918 was one of the founders of the Kultur-Lige in Kiev. Though primarily known as a sculptor, in his early career, he also illustrated Yiddish books, many of them children’s books. In 1921 his Yiddish book, Skulptur was published. In it, the artist formulated an avant-garde approach to sculpture and its place in a new Jewish art. It too is in the Beinecke collection. Another of the great artists from this remarkable period in Yiddish cultural history is Issachar Ber Ryback. Together with Lisistzky, he traveled as a young man in the Russian countryside studying Jewish folk life and art. Their findings made a deep impression on both men as artists and as Jews and folk art remained an aoffering influence on their work. One of Ryback’s better known works is Shtetl, Mayn Khoyever heym; a gedenknish (Shtetl, My destroyed home; A Remembrance), Berlin, 1922. In this book, also in the Beinecke collection, the artist depicts scenes of Jewish life in his shtetl (village) in Ukraine before it was destroyed in the pogroms which followed the end of World War I. Indeed, Shtetl is an elegy to that world. David Hofstein’s book of poems, Troyer (Tears), illustrated by Mark Chagall also mourns the victims of the pogroms. It was published by the Kultur-Lige in Kiev in 1922. Chagall’s art in this book is stark and minimalist in keeping with the grim subject of the poetry. Chagall was a leading force in the new emerging Yiddish secular art and many of the young modernist artists of the time came to study and paint with him in Vitebsk, his hometown. Lisistzky and Ryback were among them. Chagall, however, parted ways with them when their artistic styles and goals diverged. Chagall moved to Moscow in 1920 where he became involved with the newly created and innovative Moscow Yiddish Theater. Cite as: General Modern Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University ******** KULTUR LIGE : the Kultur Lige was at the heart of the Jewish cultural renaissance in Kiev, providing education and culture to the Jewish population. It had its own press, which published teaching material, literary and historical studies, literary journals, and children's books such as Troyer. The artists involved included Lissitzky, Ryback, Chagall, and Tchaikov, to name only a few. ******** LISSITZKY : Architect, painter, graphic artist, photographer, designer and art theoretician. Born in Pochinok village (now in Smolensk Oblast, Russia) Lissitzky studied at Jehuda Pen’s art school in Vitsyebsk (1903), at the Technische Hochschule in Darmstadt (1909-1914) and at the evacuated to Moscow Riga Polytechinic Institute (1914-1916). His first exhibition was in 1912. In Moscow, Lissitzky belonged to the Jewish Society for the Furthering of the Arts (1917-1918) the Club of Jewish Aesthetics (1917). In 1918-1919 he was a member of the arts section of the Kultur-Lige in Kyiv and illustrated Yiddish books for publishing houses in Kyiv and Petrograd. In 1919 he moved to Vitsyebsk, where he became a supporter of Kazimir Malevich’s suprematism, joined the UNOVIS group (Russian abbreviation for “The Champions of the New Art”) and headed the faculty of architecture at the People’s Art School. From 1921 to 1925 he lived in Berlin, where he establishes contacts with Avant-Gard groups and published his books About two squares (1922), The Artisms (1922, together with Hans Arp), among others. After return to Moscow, he lectured at the Higher Art and Technical Studios / Higher Art and Technical Institute (1925-1930). In 1928 the artist was appointed the chief architect of the Central Park of Culture and Repose in Moscow. Lissitzky designed numerous Soviet displays and pavillons at international exhibitions. He took part in many exhibitions in the USSR and beyond its boarders. Lissitzky died in Moscow. ********* ALTMAN : Painter, book illustrator and stage designer. Born in Vinnytsia, Altman studied at Odessa College of Art from 1903 to 1907, and in Paris at the Free Russian Academy (1910-1911). The Paris period in the painter’s activity is characterized by noticeable influences of Cubism and Modernism. His first exposition was in 1906. In 1912 Altman moved to Saint Petersburg. In 1915 he became one of the founders of the Jewish Society for the Furthering of the Arts and took part in its exhibitions. From 1922 to 1924 he was a member of the Art Section of Moscow Kultur-Lige. In the 1920s the artist worked as a stage designer for the Habima Theater and for the State Jewish Theater (GOSET) in Moscow (1920-1928). In 1928 Altman returned to Paris, where he lived until 1936. Up to his return to the USSR, he worked as a designer and a book illustrator (he illustrated Gogol’s and Scholem Aleichem’s stories, among others). Altman died in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). ******** RYBACK : Graphic artist, painter, stage designer and art critic. Born in Elisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad), Ryback studied at Kyiv College of Art and at the studios of Alexandra Ekster (1911-1916). In 1916, according to the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society’s assignment, Ryback and El Lissitzky visited a number of towns in Ukraine and Belorus, where they copied the murals in the wooden synagogues and the carved tombstones on Jewish cemeteries. In 1917 Ryback took part in the Exhibition of Jewish Painters and Sculptors in Moscow. Reviewers wrote that he was one of the “most original and colorful painters”. In Kyiv, Ryback helped organizing Kyiv branch of the Jewish Society for Furthering of Arts (1917), of the Kultur-Lige Art Section (1918) and of the 1st Jewish Art Exhibition. In 1919 Ryback and Boris Aronson published the programmatic essay “Paths of Jewish Painting”. In 1920 Ryback after the moved to Moscow, where he lived for about a year. In 1921 Ryback moved to Berlin, where he became a member of the November Group and published two albums of graphic works, “Shtettl” (1923) and “Jewish Types of Ukraine” (1924). After his return to the USSR in 1924, he created decorations for the Ukrainian State Jewish Theater in Kharkiv and undertook a long journey through Jewish kolkhozes of Ukraine and Crimea, resulting in an album titled “In the Jewish Fields of Ukraine”, published in 1926 in Paris. In the beginning of same year Ryback moved to Paris and soon began to play a noticeable role in the artistic life of the French capital. In the late 1920s – early 1930s he had a number of personal exhibitions in various Parisian galleries. In 1932 a folio of prints of his drawings entitled “Shadows of the Past” were published. Various themes of this published demonstrated Ryback's unrelenting interest towards Jewish topics. This is confirmed by the ceramic sculptures which Ryback created in the last years of his life. *********** ARONSON : Sculptor, graphic artist, pedagogue, art theoretician. Born in Kyiv, Chaikov studied in Paris from 1910 to 1913 under N. Aronson, as well as at the School of Decorative Arts and the School of Liberal Arts. The artist's first exhibition was in 1912. In the same year Chaikov and a group of young artists founded the “Mahmadim” association. They also published a journal under the same title. In 1913 the artist took part in the Autumn salon in Paris. In 1914 Chaikov returned to Russia. The artist was an active member of Jewish artistically organizations and associations. In 1918 he became one of the founders of the Kultur-Lige Art Section in Kyiv. He illustrated Yiddish books, as well as taught classes on sculpture. In 1921 his Yiddish book, “Sculptore”, was published, in which the artist formulated an Avant-Guard approach to sculpture and its place in a system of the new Jewish art. In 1922-1923 the artist worked in Berlin, took part in expositions of Soviet art in Berlin international exposition. In 1925 Chaikov became a member of the Association of Soviet Sculptors (ORS) in Moscow, as well as a member of the artists' association “Four arts”. From 1923 to 1930 he teaches sculpture at Higher Art and Technical Studios / Higher Art and Technical Institute. ******* CHAIKOV : Sculptor, graphic artist, pedagogue, art theoretician. Born in Kyiv, Chaikov studied in Paris from 1910 to 1913 under N. Aronson, as well as at the School of Decorative Arts and the School of Liberal Arts. The artist's first exhibition was in 1912. In the same year Chaikov and a group of young artists founded the “Mahmadim” association. They also published a journal under the same title. In 1913 the artist took part in the Autumn salon in Paris. In 1914 Chaikov returned to Russia. The artist was an active member of Jewish artistically organizations and associations. In 1918 he became one of the founders of the Kultur-Lige Art Section in Kyiv. He illustrated Yiddish books, as well as taught classes on sculpture. In 1921 his Yiddish book, “Sculptore”, was published, in which the artist formulated an Avant-Guard approach to sculpture and its place in a system of the new Jewish art. In 1922-1923 the artist worked in Berlin, took part in expositions of Soviet art in Berlin international exposition. In 1925 Chaikov became a member of the Association of Soviet Sculptors (ORS) in Moscow, as well as a member of the artists' association “Four arts”. From 1923 to 1930 he teaches sculpture at Higher Art and Technical Studios / Higher Art and Technical Institute. ****** The exhibition "Kultur-Lige: Artistic Avant-Garde of 1910-s - 1920s" occured on December 20, 2007 - January 25, 2008 in the National Museum of Art of Ukraine. It was dedicated to the activity of artistic section of enlightenment organization Kultur-Lige (Cultural-League), which was active on the territory of Ukraine in the first half of 20-s – beginning of 30-s of XX century. In the exposition works of Mark Chagall, Alexander Tyshler, Mark Epstein, Elieser Lisitski, Josef Chaikov, Abraham Manevich, Issakhar-Ber Rybak, Boris Aronson, Nathan Altman, Solomon Nikritin and Sarah Shor were represented. 1910- 1920 is the period of Jewish life transformation. New Jewish culture was formed through dramatic events. Studying and trying to understand a phenomenon of Jewish life and Jewish culture development in Kyiv and Ukraine and also “Kultur-Lige” activities in the context of the epoch are of a crucial importance. It is necessary for understanding of Jewish history and culture of entire Eastern Europe. ****** Issachar ber Ryback (Russian, 1897-1935) attended the Art Academy in Kiev from 1911-1916 and was an important contributor to the Kiev art scene until 1921 when he moved to Berlin, where he participated in the historically important Berlin Secession exhibit. In 1926 he moved to Paris, where he worked until he died on the eve of an important retrospective exhibition of his work organized by Wildenstein. Ryback was an member of the Russian Jewish, modernist movement that included Lissitsky, Altman, Aronson and Chagall, all of whom were seeking to revitalize Jewish art during a period which saw the cultural efflorescence of Yiddish literature, music, theater, and art. ****Klezmer(Yiddish: כליזמר or קלעזמער (klezmer),pl.: כליזמרים (klezmorim)– instruments of music) is a musical tradition of theAshkenazi JewsofEastern Europe. Played by professional musicians calledklezmorimin ensembles known askapelye, the genre originally consisted largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. In the United States the genre evolved considerably asYiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, who arrived between 1880 and 1924,[1]came into contact with American jazz. During the initial years after the klezmer revival of the 1970s, the American sub-variety was what most people knew as klezmer, although in the 21st century musicians began paying more attention to the original pre-jazz traditions as revivalists including Josh Horowitz,Yale Stromand Bob Cohen have spent years doing field research in Eastern/Central Europe. Additionally, later immigrants from theSoviet Union, such as German Goldenshtayn, took their surviving repertoires to the United States and Israel in the 1980s.Compared with most other European folk-music styles, little is known about the history of klezmer music, and much of what is said about it remains uncertain. There is, however, a heavy influence of Romani music, since many Jews and Roma lived side by side in Europe.[2]Popular musician Leonard Cohen, composed many songs which had quite a following where the Klezmer style was evident. Songs such as “Dance me to the end of love “ rely heavily on a violin but also have chord structures that feel Eastern European, Romanian, Greek or “Gypsy” in flavor or sound. Some aspects of these Klezmer-feeling Cohen compositions, as rendered, were surely modern in some of the instruments used, but the distinctive Jewish Klezmer feel shines through, and arguably, these numbers by Cohen are the most widely-heard examples of Klezmer music in the modern era due to Cohens prolific multi-generational appeal and status as a popular poet-songwriter-singer who was very popular on several continents in the Western World sine the 1960s until his death a few years back.Contents1 Etymology2 Style3 History4 Repertoire5 Song types6 Song structure7 Orchestration8 Time9 Melodic modes9.1 Ahava Rabboh/Freygish9.2 Mi Shebeirach9.3 Adoyn-y Moloch9.4 Mogen Ovoys9.5 Yishtabach10 Published CD-ROMs11 Film12 See also13 References14 External linksEtymology[edit] This section'sfactual accuracy isdisputed.Relevant discussion may be found onTalk:Klezmer. Please help to ensure that disputed statements arereliably sourced.(January 2019)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)The term klezmer comes from a combination ofHebrewwords:kli, meaning "tool, utensil or instrument" andzemer, "melody"; leading tok'li zemerכְּלִי זֶמֶר, literally "vessels (instruments) of music" or "musical instrument".[citation needed]Originally,klezmerreferred to musical instruments, and was later extended to refer, as a pejorative, to musicians themselves.[3]From the 16th to 18th centuries, it replaced older terms such asleyts(clown).[4]It was not until the late 20th century that the word came to identify a musical genre. Early 20th century recordings and writings most often refer to the style as "Yiddish" music, although it is also sometimes calledFreilech music(Yiddish, literally "Happy music"). The first recordings to use the term "klezmer" to refer to the music wereThe Klezmorim'sEast Side WeddingandStreets of Goldin 1977/78, followed by Andy Statman and Zev Feldman'sJewish Klezmer Musicin 1979.Style[edit]Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping. This is not a coincidence; the style is meant to imitatekhazoneandparaliturgicalsinging. A number ofdreydlekh(a Yiddish word formusical ornaments), such askrekhts("sobs") are used to produce this style.Various musical styles influenced traditional klezmer music. Perhaps the strongest and most enduring isRomanianmusic. Klezmer musicians heard and adapted traditional Romanian music, which is reflected in the dance forms found throughout surviving klezmer music repertoire (e.g.,Horas,Doinas,Sirbas, andBulgars)History[edit]Klezmer musicians at a wedding, Ukraine, ca. 1925TheBiblehas several descriptions of orchestras andLevitesmaking music, but after the destruction of theSecond Templein 70CE, manyRabbisdiscouraged musical instruments. However, the importance of merrymaking at weddings was not diminished, and musicians came forth to fill that niche, klezmorim. The first klezmer known by name was Yakobius ben Yakobius, a player of theaulosinSamariain the 2nd century CE. The earliest written record of the klezmorim is in the 15th century. It is unlikely that they played music recognizable as klezmer today since the style and structure of klezmer as we know it today is thought to have come largely from 19th centuryBessarabia, where the bulk of today's traditional repertoire was written.Klezmorim based much of theirsecularinstrumental music upon thedevotionalvocal music of thesynagogue, in particularcantorialmusic. Even so, klezmorim—along with other entertainers—were typically looked down on by Rabbis because of their secular traveling lifestyle. Klezmorim often travelled and played withRomanimusicians ("lăutari"), because they occupied similar social strata. They had a great influence on each other musically and linguistically (the extensive klezmer argot in Yiddish includes some Romani borrowings).Josef GusikovKlezmorim were respected for their musical abilities and diverse repertoire, but they were by no means restricted to playing klezmer. They sometimes played for Christian churches and local aristocracy, and taught some Italian classical violin virtuosos.[citation needed]Like other professional musicians, klezmorim were often limited by authorities. In Ukraine they were banned from playing loud instruments, until the 19th century. Hence musicians took up theviolin,tsimbl(orcymbalom), and other stringed instruments. The first musician to play klezmer in European concerts,Josef Gusikov, played a type ofxylophonewhich he invented and called a "wood and straw instrument". It was laid out like a cymbalom, and attracted comments fromFelix Mendelssohn(highly favourable) andLiszt(condemnatory). Later, around 1855 under the reign ofAlexander II of Russia, Ukraine permitted loud instruments. Theclarinetstarted to replace the violin as the instrument of choice. Also, a shift towards brass and percussion happened when klezmorim were conscripted into military bands.As Jews left Eastern Europe and theshtetls(see a related article about the artistChaim Goldberg, who depicted klezmer performers of theshtetlin his paintings), klezmer spread throughout the globe, to the United States as well as to Canada, Mexico, and Argentina. Initially, the klezmer tradition was not maintained much by U.S. Jews. In the 1920s, clarinetistsDave TarrasandNaftule Brandweincaused a brief, influential revival, butHankus Netskyhas noted that "few of the performers of this era actually referred to themselves as klezmorim, and the term is found nowhere in any Jewish instrumental recording of the time."[5](The sopranoIsa Kremerwas a popular exponent of Yiddish song internationally during the first half of the 20th century; notably making several recordings withColumbia Recordsand appearing often atCarnegie Halland other major venues in the U.S. from 1922-1950.)[6]As U.S. Jews began to adopt mainstream culture, the popularity of klezmer waned, and Jewish celebrations were increasingly accompanied by non-Jewish music.While traditional performances may have been on the decline, many Jewish composers who had mainstream success, such asLeonard BernsteinandAaron Copland, continued to be influenced by the klezmeric idioms heard during their youth (asGustav Mahlerhad been).George Gershwinwas familiar with klezmer music, and the opening clarinet glissando ofRhapsody in Bluesuggests this influence, although the composer did not compose klezmer directly.[7]Some clarinet stylings of swing jazz bandleadersBenny GoodmanandArtie Shawcan be interpreted as having been derived from klezmer, as can the "freilach swing" playing of other Jewish artists of the period such as trumpeterZiggy Elman.At the same time, non-Jewish composers were also turning to klezmer for a prolific source of fascinating thematic material.Dmitri Shostakovichin particular admired klezmer music for embracing both the ecstasy and the despair of human life, and quoted several melodies in hischambermasterpieces, thePiano Quintet in G minor, op. 57(1940), thePiano Trio No. 2 in E minor, op. 67(1944), and theString Quartet No. 8 in C minor, op. 110(1960).The Klezmatics, an American klezmer bandIn the mid-to-late 1970s there was a klezmer revival in the United States and Europe, led byGiora Feidman,The Klezmorim,Zev Feldman,Andy Statman, and theKlezmer Conservatory Band. They drew their repertoire from recordings and surviving musicians of U.S. klezmer. In 1985,Henry Sapoznikand Adrienne Cooper foundedKlezKampto teach klezmer and other Yiddish music.The 1980s saw a second wave of revival, as interest grew in more traditionally inspired performances with string instruments, largely with non-Jews of the United States and Germany. Musicians began to track down older European klezmer, by listening to recordings, finding transcriptions, and making field recordings of the few klezmorim left in Eastern Europe. Key performers in this style areJoel Rubin,Budowitz, Khevrisa, Di Naye Kapelye, Yale Strom, The Chicago Klezmer Ensemble, The Maxwell Street Klezmer Band, the violinistsAlicia Svigals,Steven Greenman,[8]Cookie SegelsteinandElie Rosenblatt, flutistAdrianne Greenbaum, andtsimblplayerPete Rushefsky. Other artists like Yale Strom used their first-hand field research and recordings from as early as 1981 in Central and Eastern Europe as a foundation for more of a fusion between traditional repertoire and original compositions, as well as incorporating the Rom (Roma) music element into the Jewish style. Bands like Brave Old World, Hot Pstromi and The Klezmatics also emerged during this period.Klezmer musicians inJerusalemIn the 1990s, musicians from the San Francisco Bay Area helped further interest in klezmer music by taking it into new territory. Clarinetist Ben Goldberg and drummer Kenny Wollesen, after playing in Bay Area-basedThe Klezmorim, formed the critically acclaimed New Klezmer Trio—kicking open the door for radical experiments with Ashkenazi music and paving the way forJohn Zorn's Masada, Naftule's Dream, Don Byron's Mickey Katz project and violinistDaniel Hoffman'sklezmer/jazz/Middle-Eastern fusion band Davka. The New Orleans Klezmer All-Stars[1]also formed in 1991 with a mixture of New Orleans funk, jazz, and klezmer styles.Interest in klezmer has been sustained and supported by such well-knownavant-gardejazzmusicians as John Zorn andDon Byron, who sometimes blend klezmer withjazz. Klezmer melodies have recently been incorporated into songs by third-waveSkabandStreetlight Manifesto. Singer/songwriterTomas Kalnokyfrequently slips in horn licks with Russian and Jewish origins.The Jerusalem Klezmer Association with Ultra Orthodox Jewish musicians are playing Klezmer musicMames Babegenushwas formed inCopenhagen, Denmark, in 2004 out of strong Scandinavian roots merged with traditional klezmer, influenced on the klezmer side by masters likeNaftule Brandwein,Abe SchwartzandDave Tarras. Today the band has developed a new sound of modern klezmer, pushing the perimeter of klezmer to incorporate many cultures[9]and touring worldwide. The band's most recent albumMames Babegenush With Strings(2017) was warmly received with 5-6 stars reviews in such magazines asSonglinesandfRoots.[10]Starting in 2008, "The Other Europeans" project, funded by several EU cultural institutions,[11]spent a year doing intensive field research inMoldaviaunder the leadership of Alan Bern and scholar Zev Feldman. They wanted to explore klezmer andlautariroots, and fuse the music of the two "other European" groups. The resulting band now performs internationally. As with this ensemble, groups like Di Naye Kapelye and Yale Strom &Hot Pstromihave incorporatedRommusicians and elements since their inceptions.A separate klezmer tradition had developed in Israel in the 20th century. Clarinetists Moshe Berlin and Avrum Leib Burstein are known exponents of the klezmer style in Israel. In order to preserve and promote klezmer music in Israel, Burstein founded theJerusalem Klezmer Association, which has become a center for learning and performance of Klezmer music in the country.[12]Repertoire[edit]According toWalter Zev Feldman, the klezmer dance repertoire seems to have been relatively uniform across the areas ofJewish settlementin theRussian Empire.[13]Much of the traditional klezmer repertoire was created by professional klezmer musicians in the style of their region or tradition, and much co-territorial music such as non-Jewish folksongs, especiallyRomanian music(mainly fromMoldavia), as well asUkrainian musicandOttoman music, and the musics of other minorities living in the same areas as Jews in Southeastern Europe such asCrimean Tatars.Historically, young klezmorim learned tunes from their family and their elders in bands. However, there were several times in history where this transmission broke down, including mass emigration, but especially theHolocaust, which destroyed most of Jewish life and culture in Europe. Few scions of klezmer dynasties remained in Europe, one notable exception being Leopold Kozlowski of Poland.Undoubtedly, much has been lost of the repertoires played in various locations and social contexts—especially wedding repertoire, since althoughJewish weddingscould last several days, early recording technology could only capture a few minutes at a time. Also, recordings specific to one area may not have represented klezmer repertoire from other parts of the region. A few older klezmorim—such asLeon Schwartz,Dave Tarras, andGerman Goldenshtayn—survived into the klezmer revival era and could recall some forgotten repertoire. Also, some transcriptions survive from the 19th century. Some ethnomusicological work from Jewish Eastern Europe is still available in print, notably the work ofSoviet Jewishfield researcherMoshe Beregovski.In the 21st century, klezmer is typically learned from "fake books" andtranscriptionsof old recordings, although the music was traditionally transmitted and learned by ear.Song types[edit]Most klezmer pieces are for dancing to, from fast to slow tempo:Freylekhs(also Bulgar, bulgarish– literally "Bulgarian",volekhl/vulekhl– literally "Wallachian", or "Romanian") is an88(divided3+3+28) circle dance, usually in theAhava Rabbohmelodic mode. Typically piano, accordion, or bass plays a duple oompah beat. These are by far the most popular klezmer dances. The name "Bulgar" (Yiddish "bulgarish") comes from the Romanian traditional song and dance (Romanianbulgarească). "Freylekh" is the Yiddish word for "festive."Sheris aset dancein24. It is one of the most common klezmer dances. Its name comes from the straight-legged, quick movements of the legs, reminiscent of the shears (Yiddish:sher) of tailors.Khosidl, orkhusidl, named after theHasidicJews who danced it, is a more dignified embellished dance in24or44. The dance steps can be performed in a circle or in a line.Horaorzhokis aRomanian-style dance in a hobbling38time with beats on 1 and 3, and is even more embellished. TheIsraelihora derives its roots from the Romanian hora. The Yiddish namezhokcomes from the Romanian termjoc(literally "dance")Kolomeikeis a fast and catchy dance in24time, which originated in Ukraine, and is prominent in the folk music of that country.Terkishis a44dance like thehabanera.Terk in Americais one famous arrangement byNaftule Brandwein, who used this form extensively. As its name indicates, it recalls Turkish styles.Skotshne("hopping") could be an instrumental display piece, but also a dance piece, like a more elaborate freylekhs.Nigunmeans "melody" in bothYiddishandHebrew, a mid-paced song in24.Waltzeswere very popular, whether classical, Russian, or Polish. Apadespanwas a sort of Russian/Spanish waltz known to klezmers.Mazurkaandpolka, Polish and Czech dances, respectively, were often played for both Jews and Gentiles.Sirba– a Romanian dance in22or24(Romaniansârbă). It features hopping steps and short bursts of running, accompanied by triplets in themelody.Humoresque"Halaka" dance, a traditional Israeli dance fromSafedinGalilee; it has an ancient melody handed down from generation to generation.Tango– well-known dance that originated in Argentina. These were extremely popular around the world in the 1930s, and many Eastern European tangos were originally written by Jews.Types not designed for dance are:Doinais an improvisational lament usually performed solo, and is extremely important in weddings. Its basis is the Romanian shepherd's lament, so it has an expressive vocal quality, like the singing of thekhazn. Although it has no form, it is not just random sounds in a Jewishmode—the musician works with very particular references to Jewish prayer and East European laments. Often these references might occur in the form of harmonic movements or modal maneuvers that quote or otherwise invoke traditional Jewish cantorial practices. Typically it is performed on violin, cymbalom or clarinet, though it has been done and many other instruments. Often the doina is the first of a three-part set, followed by ahora, then either afreylekhsorkhusidl. One can even hear recordings of contemporary vocalists singing the doina, including Michael Alpert and Elizabeth Schwartz.Taksimis a freeform prelude that introduces the motifs of the following piece, which is usually a freylekhs; it was largely supplanted by the doina.Fantazior fantasy is a freeform song, traditionally played at Jewish weddings to the guests as they dined. It resembles thefantasiaof "light" classical music.Song structure[edit]Most klezmer tunes are in several sections, sometimes with each in a differentkey. Many songs have alternating sections withmajorandminorkeys. Klezmer music often uses "folkscales," or scales commonly found in folk music, such as theharmonic minorandphrygian dominant. Instrumental tunes often follow the types ofchord progressionsfound in Middle Eastern and Greek music, whereas vocalYiddishsongs are often much simpler, and follow a style and chord progressions similar to Russian folk songs.Freylekhs are often in the form ABCB, which is rare in music. Having a third distinct section is a relatively unique aspect of klezmer music.A common ending for songs is an upwardschromaticrun orglissando, followed by a slowstaccato8-5-1. They may also end with a Coda, a new melodic line that is accompanied by a change in the percussion rhythm and an increase in tempo.Orchestration[edit]Klezmorim inRohatyn,Galicia,Austria-Hungary, 1912Klezmer is generally instrumental, although at weddings klezmorim traditionally accompanied the vocal stylings of thebadkhn(wedding entertainer). A typical 19th-century European orchestra included a firstviolin, a contra-violin (or modified 3-stringedviolaalso called Groyse Fidl [Yid. Big Fiddle], Sekund, Kontra or Zsidó Bratsch [Hun.]),[14]atsimbl(cimbalomorhammered dulcimer), abassorcello, and sometimes aflute. Other instruments such as apianoor anaccordionare used too. The melody is generally assigned to the lead violin, while the other instrumentalists provide harmony, rhythm, and some counterpoint (the latter usually coming from the second violin or viola). The inclusion of Jews in tsarist army bands during the 19th century led to the introduction of typical military band instruments into klezmer. Theclarinetnow often played the melody. Brass instruments—such as the French valvedcornetand keyed Germantrumpet—eventually inherited a counter-voice role.[15]Modern klezmer instrumentation is more commonly influenced by the instruments of the 19th century military bands than the earlier orchestras. The orchestration used byJoel Rubin—one of the most experienced and knowledgeable contemporary klezmer musicians—represents a historically justified link with that of contemporary ethnic music ensembles of Romania and Hungary.[16]Percussion in early 20th-century klezmer recordings was generally minimal—no more than awood blockorsnare drum. The snare drum is the more "authentic" of the two. Wood blocks were introduced by modern klezmorim to imitate recordings from the early 20th century that replaced snare drums—which tended to overwhelm the recording equipment of the time—with quieter instruments. In Eastern Europe, percussion was often provided by a drummer who played aframe drum, orpoyk, sometimes calledbaraban. A poyk is similar to abass drumand often has a cymbal or piece of metal mounted on top, which is struck by a beater or a small cymbal strapped to the hand. In Bulgaria, Serbia, and Macedonia, sometimes thepaykler(drummer) also played in thetapanstyle, i.e., with a switch in one hand on a thin tight head, and a mallet in the other, on a thicker, looser head.The Amsterdam Klezmer Band performing inCologne, GermanySome klezmer revival bands look to loud-instrument klezmer,jazz, andDixielandfor inspiration. Their bands are similar to a typical jazz band, with some differences. They use aclarinet,saxophone, ortrumpetfor the melody, and make great use of thetrombonefor slides and other flourishes. When a cymbalom sound is called for, apianomay be played. There is usually abrass instrumentensemble, and sometimes a tuba substitutes forbass. Performers in this style include The Klezmorim, The Klezmatics, TheKlezmer Conservatory Band, and TheMaxwell Street Klezmer Band. Other bands look back to different eras or regions in an effort to recreate specific styles of klezmer—for example,Budowitz, the Chicago Klezmer Band, Veretski Pass, Di Naye Kapelye, and the Hungarian bandMuzsikaswith its albumMaramoros: the Lost Jewish Music of Transylvania."New Orleans Klezmer All Stars" band in theKrewe du VieuxparadeKlezmer instrument choices were traditionally based, by necessity, on an instrument's portability. Music being required for several parts of the wedding ceremony, taking place in different rooms or courtyards, the band had to relocate quickly from space to space. Further, klezmorim were usually itinerant musicians, who moved from town to town for work. Therefore, instruments held in the hands (clarinet, violin, trumpet, flute) or supported by a neck or shoulder strap (accordion, cimbalom, drum) were favored over those that rested on the ground (cello, bass violin), or needed several people to move (piano).In America, this trend has continued into the present day, with hand-held or strap-held instruments like guitars, saxophones, and even harmonicas integrated into klezmer ensembles. For example, the typical American klezmer wedding band uses a portable electronic synthesizer, not a piano.The compositions of Israeli-born composerOfer Ben-Amotsincorporate aspects of klezmer music, most notably his 2006 compositionKlezmer Concerto. The piece is for klezmer clarinet (written for Jewish clarinetistDavid Krakauer),[17]string orchestra, harp and percussion.[18]Time[edit]In its historic form, klezmer was live music designed to facilitate dancing. Hence, musicians adjusted the tempo as dancers tired or better dancers joined in. Tunes could drag to a near-halt during a particularly sad part, picking up slowly, and eventually bursting into happy song again. (This is also a feature of manyRomand Russian folk songs.)Like other musicians of their time, and many modernjazzperformers, early klezmorim did not rigidly follow the beat. Often they slightly led or trailed it, giving a lilting sound.Melodic modes[edit]Further information:Jewish Prayer ModesKlezmer is usually played inshteygerim, prayer modes of thesynagogue. They are closely related to Greek, Turkish, and other "co-territorial" modes of Southeastern and Central Europe. The following are the names of these modes; the names are taken from the names of familiar prayers that use that mode (imagine an American composer referring to a piece as "a Grand Old Flag" instead of as "a march").Ahava Rabboh/Freygish[edit]Ahavo Rabbohmeans "Abounding Love" in Hebrew, and refers to a prayer from thedaily morning prayerservice (shacharis). It is built on the 5th degree of the harmonic minor scale, with adescending tetrachordto the tonic being the most characteristic final cadence. It is also called the "Freygish", aYiddishterm derived from the German "Phrygisch", orPhrygian mode(specifically, thePhrygian dominant scale). It is considered the mode of supplication.[19]Conversely, it can be thought of as a natural minor scale with lowered 2nd, and augmented 3rd degrees. It is similar to the ArabicHijazmaqam. Much of klezmer music uses the Ahavah Rabboh scale (such as Nigun Rikud, Tish Nigun and numerous freylekhs), although Mi Sheberach is prevalent as well.Mi Shebeirach[edit]Mi Shebeirachmeans "He who blessed" in Hebrew, from theMi Shebeirachprayer, recited after the honor of being called to the Torah reading. It is also called theUkrainian,Altered Ukrainian,Doina, orAlteredDorian. It is similar to the natural minor scale, but has raised fourth and sixth scale degrees, and is used often for thedoinaor dance pieces, like theOdessa Bulgar. When used in combination with the Ahavoh Rabboh scale in the same piece (as in Mayn Shtetl Yas), the Mi Shebeirach section is usually a whole tone below the Ahavoh Rabboh scale (for example, D Ahavoh Rabboh changes to C Mi Shebeirach or vice versa).Adoyn-y Moloch[edit]Adoyn-y Molochmeans "my Lord reigns" in Hebrew. It is common in traditionalsynagogueservices (they are the beginning words of many of thePsalms). It is similar to the WesternMixolydianmode and can be thought of as a major scale with a lowered 7th, which is sometimes raised at cadences, but is generally avoided altogether.Mogen Ovoys[edit]Mogen Ovoysmeans "our forebears' shield" in Hebrew. It is an older mode from thesynagogue, derived from theFriday night prayers. It is similar to the Western melodicminor scale.Yishtabach[edit]Yishtabachmeans "it shall become superb" in Hebrew (from the daily morning services). It has a frequent lowering of the 2nd and 5th. It is related toMogein Ovoys, above. ****AJewish weddingis aweddingceremony that follows Jewish laws and traditions.While wedding ceremonies vary, common features of a Jewish wedding include aketubah(marriage contract) which is signed by two witnesses, achuppah(orhuppah; wedding canopy), a ring owned by the groom that is given to the bride under the canopy and thebreaking of a glass.Technically, the Jewish wedding process has two distinct stages:[1]kiddushin(sanctification or dedication, also callederusin,betrothalin Hebrew) andnissuin(marriage), when the couple start their life together. The first stage prohibits the woman to all other men, requiring aget(religious divorce) to dissolve, and the final stage permits the couple to each other. The ceremony that accomplishes nisuin is known when the groom gives the bride a ring or other object of value with the intent of creating a marriage. There are differing opinions as to which part of the ceremony constitutesnissuin/chuppah; they include standing under the canopy - itself called achuppah- and being alone together in a room (yichud).[2]While historically these two events could take place as much as a year apart,[3]they are now commonly combined into one ceremony.[2]Contents1 Signing of the marriage contract2 Bridal canopy3 Covering of the bride4 Unterfirers5 Circling the groom6 Presentation of the ring (Betrothal)7 Seven blessings8 Breaking the glass9 Yichud10 Special dances11 Birkat hamazon and sheva brachot12 Jewish prenuptial agreements13 Timing14 See also15 References16 External linksSigning of the marriage contract[edit]Before the wedding ceremony, the groom agrees to be bound by the terms of theketubah(marriage contract) in the presence of two witnesses, whereupon the witnesses sign the ketubah.[4]Theketubahdetails the obligations of the groom to the bride, among which are food, clothing, and marital relations. This document has the standing of a legally binding agreement, though it may be hard to collect these amounts in a secular court.[5]It is often written as an illuminated manuscript that is framed and displayed in their home.[6]Under thechuppah, it is traditional to read the signedketubahaloud, usually in theAramaicoriginal, but sometimes in translation. Traditionally, this is done to separate the two basic parts of the wedding.[7]Non-Orthodox Jewish couples may opt for a bilingual ketubah, or for a shortened version to be read out.Bridal canopy[edit]A traditional Jewish wedding ceremony takes place under achuppah(wedding canopy), symbolizing the new home being built by the couple when they become husband and wife.[8][9]Covering of the bride[edit]Jewish Wedding, Venice, 1780Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du JudaïsmePrior to the ceremony,Ashkenazi Jewshave a custom to cover the face of the bride (usually with a veil), and a prayer is often said for her based on the words spoken to Rebecca inGenesis 24:60.[10]The veiling ritual is known inYiddishasbadeken. Various reasons are given for the veil and the ceremony, a commonly accepted reason is that it reminds the Jewish people of how Jacob was tricked by Laban into marrying Leah before Rachel, as her face was covered by her veil (seeVayetze).[11]Another reasoning is that Rebecca is said to have veiled herself when approached by Isaac, who would become her husband.[12]Sephardi Jewsdo not perform this ceremony. Additionally, the veil emphasizes that the groom is not solely interested in the bride's external beauty, which fades with time; but rather in her inner beauty which she will never lose.[13]Unterfirers[edit]In many Orthodox Jewish communities, the bride is escorted to thechuppahby both mothers, and the groom is escorted by both fathers, known by Ashkenazi Jews asunterfirers(Yiddish: "Ones who lead under").[14]In another custom, bride and groom are each escorted by their respective parents.[15]However, the escorts may be any happily married couple, if parents are unavailable or undesired for some reason.[16]There is a custom in some Ashkenazi communities for the escorts to hold candles as they process to the chuppah.[17]Circling the groom[edit]Plain gold wedding bandsOutdoor huppa inViennaA groom breaking the glassDances at a Jewish wedding inMorocco, early 19th century1893 painting of a marriage procession in a RussianshtetlbyIsaak AsknaziyIn Ashkenazi tradition, the bride traditionally walks around the groom three or seven times when she arrives at thechuppah. This may derive fromJeremiah 31:22, "A woman shall surround a man". The three circuits may represent the three virtues of marriage: righteousness, justice and loving kindness (seeHosea 2:19). Seven circuits derives from the Biblical concept that seven denotes perfection or completeness.[14]Sephardic Jews do not perform this ceremony.[18]Presentation of the ring (Betrothal)[edit]In traditional weddings, two blessings are recited before the betrothal; a blessing over wine, and thebetrothal blessing, which is specified in the Talmud.[19]The wine is then tasted by the couple.[20]Rings are not actually required; they are simply the most common way (since the Middle Ages) of fulfilling the bride price requirement. The bride price (or ring) must have a monetary value no less than a singleprutah(the smallest denomination of currency used during the Talmudic era). The low value is to ensure that there are no financial barriers to access marriage.[21]According to Jewish law, the ring must be composed of solid metal (gold or silver are preferred; alloys are discouraged), with no jewel inlays or gem settings, so that it's easy to ascertain the ring's value. Others ascribe a more symbolic meaning, saying that the ring represents the ideal of purity and honesty in a relationship. However, it's quite common for Jewish couples (especially those who are not Orthodox) to use weddings rings with engraving, metallic embellishments, or to go a step further and use gemstone settings. Some Orthodox couples will use a simple gold or silver band during the ceremony to fulfill the halachic obligations, and after the wedding, the bride may wear a ring with any decoration she likes.[22][23]The groom gives the bride a ring, traditionally a plain wedding band,[24]and recites the declaration:Behold, you are consecrated to me with this ring according to the law of Moses and Israel. The groom places the ring on the bride's right index finger. According to traditional Jewish law, two valid witnesses must see him place the ring.[20]During someegalitarianweddings, the bride will also present a ring to the groom,[25][26]often with a quote from the Song of Songs: "Ani l'dodi, ve dodi li" (I am my beloved's and my beloved is mine), which may also be inscribed on the ring itself.[27][28]This ring is sometimes presented outside thechuppahto avoid conflicts with Jewish law.[29][30][31]Seven blessings[edit]TheSheva Brachotor seven blessings are recited by thehazzanorrabbi, or by select guests who are called up individually. Being called upon to recite one of the seven blessings is considered an honour. The groom is given the cup of wine to drink from after the seven blessings. The bride also drinks the wine. In some traditions, the cup will be held to the lips of the groom by his new father-in-law and to the lips of the bride by her new mother-in-law.[32]Traditions vary as to whether additional songs are sung before the seven blessings.Breaking the glass[edit]After the bride has been given the ring, or at the end of the ceremony (depending on local custom), the groom breaks a glass, crushing it with his right foot, and the guests shout: "Mazel Tov!" (Hebrew: "congratulations"). At some contemporary weddings, alightbulbmay be substituted because it is thinner and more easily broken, and it makes a louder popping sound.[33]The origin of this custom is unknown, although many reasons have been given. The primary reason is that joy must always be tempered.[34]This is based on two accounts in the Talmud of rabbis who, upon seeing that their son's wedding celebration was getting out of hand, broke a vessel – in the second case a glass – to calm things down.[35]Another explanation is that it is a reminder that despite the joy, Jews still mourn the destruction of theTemple in Jerusalem. Because of this, some recite the verses "If I forget thee / O Jerusalem..." (Ps. 137:5) at this point.[24]Many other reasons have been given by traditional authorities.[34]Former Sephardic Chief Rabbi of IsraelOvadia Yosefhas strongly criticized the way this custom is sometimes carried out, arguing that "Many unknowledgeable people fill their mouths with laughter during the breaking of the glass, shouting 'mazel tov' and turning a beautiful custom meant to express our sorrow" over Jerusalem's destruction "into an opportunity for lightheadedness."[36]Reform Judaism has a new custom where brides and grooms break the wine glass or seclusion) refers to the Ashkenazi practice of leaving the bride and groom alone for 10–20 minutes after the wedding ceremony. The couple retreats to a private room.Yichudcan take place anywhere, from a rabbi's study to a synagogue classroom.[37]The reason foryichudis that according to several authorities, standing under the canopy alone does not constitutechuppah, and seclusion is necessary to complete the wedding ceremony.[2]However, Sephardic Jews do not have this custom, as they consider it adavar mechoar(repugnant thing), compromising the couple's modesty.[38]In Yemen, the Jewish practice was not for the groom and his bride to be secluded in a canopy (chuppah), as is widely practiced today in Jewish weddings, but rather in a bridal chamber that was, in effect, a highly decorated room in the house of the groom. This room was traditionally decorated with large hanging sheets of colored, patterned cloth, replete with wall cushions and short-length mattresses for reclining.[39]Their marriage is consummated when they have been left together alone in this room. Thechuppahis described the same way inSefer HaIttur(12th century),[40]and similarly in theJerusalem Talmud.[41]Special dances[edit]Dancing is a major feature of Jewish weddings. It is customary for the guests to dance in front of the seated couple and entertain them.[42]Traditional Ashkenazi dances include:TheKrenzl, in which the bride's mother is crowned with a wreath of flowers as her daughters dance around her (traditionally at the wedding of the mother's last unwed daughter).TheMizinke, a dance for the parents of the bride or groom when their last child is wed.The "Horah" is a Middle Eastern/Israeli style dance[43]usually played as a second dance set.Thegladdening of the bride, in which guests dance around the bride, and can include the use of "shtick"—silly items such as signs, banners, costumes, confetti, and jump ropes made of table napkins.TheMitzvah tantz, in which family members and honored rabbis are invited to dance in front of the bride (or sometimes with the bride in the case of a father or grandfather), often holding agartel, and then dancing with the groom. At the end the bride and groom dance together themselves.Birkat hamazon and sheva brachot[edit]After the meal,Birkat Hamazon(Grace after meals) is recited, followed bysheva brachot. At a wedding banquet, the wording of the blessings preceding Birkat Hamazon is slightly different from the everyday version.[44]Prayer booklets calledbenchers,may be handed out to guests. After the prayers, the blessing over the wine is recited, with two glasses of wine poured together into a third, symbolising the creation of a new life together.[42]Jewish prenuptial agreements[edit]In present times, Jewish rabbinical bodies have developedJewish prenuptial agreementsdesigned to prevent the husband from withholding agetfrom his wife, should she want a divorce. Such documents have been developed and widely used in the United States, Israel, the United Kingdom and other places. However, this approach has not been universally accepted, particularly by theOrthodox.[45]Conservative Judaism developed theLieberman clausein order to prevent husbands from refusing to give their wives aget. To do this, theketubahhas built in provisions; so, if predetermined circumstances occur, the divorce goes into effect immediately.[46]Timing[edit]Weddings should not be performed onShabbator onJewish holidays, includingChol HaMoed. The period of theCounting of the Omerand theThe Three Weeksare also prohibited, although customs vary regarding part of these periods. Some months and days are considered more or less auspicious.[47]****Klezmer (Yiddish: קלעזמער or כּלי־זמר) is an instrumental musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.[1] The essential elements of the tradition include dance tunes, ritual melodies, and virtuosic improvisations played for listening; these would have been played at weddings and other social functions.[2][3] The musical genre incorporated elements of many other musical genres including Ottoman (especially Greek and Romanian) music, Baroque music, German and Slavic folk dances, and religious Jewish music.[4][5] As the music arrived in the United States, it lost some of its traditional ritual elements and adopted elements of American big band and popular music.[6][7] Among the European-born klezmers who popularized the genre in the United States in the 1910s and 1920s were Dave Tarras and Naftule Brandwein; they were followed by American-born musicians such as Max Epstein, Sid Beckerman and Ray Musiker.[8]After the destruction of Jewish life in Eastern Europe during the Holocaust, and a general fall in the popularity of klezmer music in the United States, the music began to be popularized again in the late 1970s in the so-called Klezmer Revival.[1] During the 1980s and onwards, musicians experimented with traditional and experimental forms of the genre, releasing fusion albums combining the genre with jazz, punk, and other styles.[9]EtymologyThe term klezmer, as used in the Yiddish language, has a Hebrew etymology: klei, meaning "tools, utensils or instruments of" and zemer, "melody"; leading to k'lei zemer כְּלֵי זֶמֶר‎, meaning "musical instruments".[10][1] This expression would have been familiar to literate Jews across the diaspora, not only Ashkenazi Jews in Eastern Europe.[11] Over time the usage of "klezmer" in a Yiddish context evolved to describe musicians instead of their instruments, first in Bohemia in the second half of the sixteenth century and then in Poland, possibly as a response to the new status of the musicians who were at that time forming professional guilds.[11] Previously the musician may have been referred to as a lets (לץ) or other terms.[12][13] After the term klezmer became the preferred term for these professional musicians in Yiddish-speaking Eastern Europe, other types of musicians were more commonly known as muziker or muzikant.It was not until the late 20th century that the word "klezmer" became a commonly known English-language term.[14] During that time, through metonymy it came to refer not only to the musician but to the musical genre they played, a meaning which it had not had in Yiddish.[15][16][17] Early 20th century recording industry materials and other writings had referred to it as Hebrew, Jewish, or Yiddish dance music, or sometimes using the Yiddish term Freilech music ("Cheerful music").Twentieth century Russian scholars sometimes used the term klezmer; Ivan Lipaev did not use it, but Moisei Beregovsky did when publishing in Yiddish or Ukrainian.[11]The first[citation needed] postwar recordings to use the term "klezmer" to refer to the music were The Klezmorim's East Side Wedding and Streets of Gold in 1977/78, followed by Andy Statman and Zev Feldman's Jewish Klezmer Music in 1979.[citation needed]Musical elementsStyleThe traditional style of playing klezmer music, including tone, typical cadences, and ornamentation, sets it apart from other genres.[18] Although klezmer music emerged from a larger Eastern European Jewish musical culture that included Jewish cantorial music, Hasidic Nigns, and later Yiddish theatre music, it also borrowed from the surrounding folk musics of Central and Eastern Europe and from cosmopolitan European musical forms.[4][19] Therefore it evolved into an overall style which has recognizable elements from all of those other genres.Few klezmer musicians before the late nineteenth century had formal musical training, but they inherited a rich tradition with its own advanced musical techniques. Each musician had their understanding of how the style should be "correctly" performed.[20][18] The usage of these ornaments was not random; the matters of "taste", self-expression, variation and restraint were and remain important elements of how to interpret the music.[18]Klezmer musicians apply the overall style to available specific techniques on each melodic instrument. They incorporate and elaborate the vocal melodies of Jewish religious practice, including khazones, davenen, and paraliturgical song, extending the range of human voice into the musical expression possible on instruments.[21] Among those stylistic elements that are considered typically "Jewish" in klezmer music are those which are shared with cantorial or Hasidic vocal ornaments, including imitations of sighing or laughing.[22] Various Yiddish terms were used for these vocal-like ornaments such as קרעכץ (Krekhts, "groan" or "moan"), קנײטש (kneytsh, "wrinkle" or "fold"), and קװעטש (kvetsh, "pressure" or "stress").[10] Other ornaments such as trills, grace notes, appoggiaturas, glitshn (glissandos), tshoks (a kind of bent notes of cackle-like sound), flageolets (string harmonics),[23][24] pedal notes, mordents, slides and typical klezmer cadences are also important to the style.[18] In particular, the cadences which draw on religious Jewish music identify a piece more strongly as a klezmer tune, even if its broader structure was borrowed from a non-Jewish source.[25][19] Sometimes the term dreydlekh is used only for trills, while other use it for all klezmer ornaments.[26] Unlike in Classical music, vibrato is used sparingly, and is treated as another type of ornament.[22][18]In an article about Jewish music in Romania, Bob Cohen of Di Naye Kapelye describes krekhts as "a sort of weeping or hiccoughing combination of backwards slide and flick of the little finger high above the base note, while the bow does, well, something – which aptly imitates Jewish liturgical singing style." He also noted that the only other place he has heard this particular ornamentation is in Turkish music on the violin.[27] Yale Strom wrote that the use of dreydlekh by American violinists gradually diminished since 1940s, but with the klezmer revival on 1970, dreydlekh had become prominent again.[28]The accompaniment style of the accompanist or orchestra could be fairly impromptu, called צוהאַלטן (tsuhaltn, holding onto).[29]Historical repertoireThe repertoire of klezmer musicians was very diverse and tied to specific social functions and dances, especially of the traditional wedding.[2][19] These melodies might have a non-Jewish origin, or have been composed by a klezmer, but only rarely are they attributed to a specific composer.[30] Generally klezmer music can be divided into two broad categories: music for specific dances, and music for listening (at the table, in processions, ceremonial, etc.).[30]DancesFreylekhs. The simplest and most widespread type of klezmer dance tunes are those played in 24 and intended for group circle dances. Depending on the location this basic dance may also have been called a Redl (circle), Hopke, Karahod (round dance, literally the Belarusian translation of the Russian khorovod), Dreydl, Rikudl, etc.[2][31][29][10]Bulgar, or Bolgar, became the most popular klezmer dance form in the United States. Its origin is thought to be in Moldavia and with a deep connection to the Sârbă genre there.[19]Sher is a contra dance in 24. Beregovsky, writing in the 1930s, noted that despite the dance being very commonly played across a wide area, he suspected that it had its roots in an older German dance.[2] This dance continued to be known in the United States even after other complex European klezmer dances had been forgotten.[32] In some regions the music of a Sher could be interchangeable with a Freylekhs.[19]Khosidl, or Khosid, named after Hasidic Jews, is a more dignified embellished dance in 24 or 44. The dance steps can be performed in a circle or in a line.Hora or Zhok (from the Romanian Joc) is a circle dance in 38. In the United States, it came to be one of the main dance types after the Bulgar.[19]Broygez-tants[30]Kolomeike is a fast and catchy dance in 24 time, which originated in Ukraine, and is prominent in the folk music of that country.Skotshne is generally thought to be a more elaborate Freylekhs which could be played either for dancing or listening.[2]Nigun, a very broad term which can refer to melodies for listening, singing or dancing.[10] Usually a mid-paced song in 24.Waltzes were very popular, whether classical, Russian, or Polish. A padespan was a sort of Russian/Spanish waltz known to klezmers.Mazurka and polka, Polish and Czech dances, respectively, were often played for both Jews and Gentiles.Sirba – a Romanian dance in 22 or 24 (Romanian sârbă). It features hopping steps and short bursts of running, accompanied by triplets in the melody.Non-dance repertoireThe Doyne is a freeform instrumental form borrowed from the Romanian shepherd's doina. Although there are many regional types of doina in Romania and Moldova, the Jewish form is typically simpler, with a minor key theme which is then repeated in a major key, followed by a Freylekhs.[30] A Volekhl is a related genre.[10]Tish-nign (table tune)[10]Moralish, a type of Nigun, called Devekut in Hebrew, which inspires spiritual arousal or a pious mood.[10][29]A Vals (Waltz), pieces in 34 especially in the Hasidic context, may be slower than non-Jewish waltzes and intended for listening while the wedding parties are seated at their tables.[10]Forms centering on bridal rituals, including Kale-bazetsn (seating of the bride)A Marsh (March) can be non-Jewish march melodies adapted into joyful singing or playing contexts.[10]Processional melodies, including Gas-nigunim (street tunes), Tsum tish (to the table). According to Beregovski the Gas-nign was always in 34 time.[30]The Taksim, whose name is borrowed from the Ottoman/Arab Taqsim is a freeform fantasy on a particular motif, ornemented with trills, roulades and so on; it usually ends with a Freylekhs.[30] By the twentieth century it had mostly become obsolete and was replaced by the doina.[33]Fantazi or fantasy is a freeform song, traditionally played at Jewish weddings to the guests as they dined. It resembles the fantasia of "light" classical music.A Terkisher is a type of virtuosic solo piece in 44 performed by leading klezmorim such as Dave Tarras and Naftule Brandwein. There is no dance for this type of melody, rather it references an Ottoman or "oriental" style, and melodies may incorporate references to Greek Hasapiko into a Ashkenazic musical aesthetic.Parting melodies played at the beginning or end of a wedding day, such as the Zay gezunt (be healthy), Gas-nign, Dobriden (good day), Dobranotsh or A gute nakht (good night) etc.[30][34] These types of pieces were sometimes in 34 which may have given an air of dignity and seriousness.[35]OrchestrationKlezmer music is an instrumental tradition, without much of a history of songs or singing. In Eastern Europe, Klezmers did traditionally accompany the vocal stylings of the Badchen (wedding entertainer), although their performances were typically improvised couplets and the calling of ceremonies rather than songs.[36][37] (The importance of the Badchen gradually decreased by the twentieth century, although they still continued in some traditions.[38])As for the klezmer orchestra, its size and composition varied by time and place. The klezmer bands of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century were small, with roughly three to five musicians playing woodwind or string instruments.[20] Another common configuration in that era was similar to Hungarian bands today, typically a lead violinist, second violin, cello, and cimbalom.[39][40] In the mid-nineteenth century, the Clarinet started to appear in those small Klezmer ensembles as well.[41] By the last decades of the century, in Ukraine, the orchestras had grown larger, averaging seven to twelve members, and incorporating brass instruments and up to twenty for a prestigious occasion.[42][43] (However, for poor weddings a large klezmer ensemble might only send three or four of its junior members.[42]) In these larger orchestras, on top of the core instrumentation of strings and woodwinds, cornets, C clarinets, trombones, a contrabass, a large Turkish drum, and several extra violins.[30] The inclusion of Jews in tsarist army bands during the 19th century may also have led to the introduction of typical military band instruments into klezmer. With such large orchestras, the music was arranged so that the bandleader soloist could still be heard at key moments.[44] In Galicia, and Belarus, the smaller string ensemble with cimbalom remained the norm into the twentieth century.[45][30] American klezmer as it developed in dancehalls and wedding banquets of the early twentieth century had a more complete orchestration not unlike those used in popular orchestras of the time. They use a clarinet, saxophone, or trumpet for the melody, and make great use of the trombone for slides and other flourishes.Jewish musicians of Rohatyn (west Ukraine)The melody in klezmer music is generally assigned to the lead violin, although occasionally the flute and eventually clarinet.[30] The other instrumentalists provide harmony, rhythm, and some counterpoint (the latter usually coming from the second violin or viola). The clarinet now often played the melody. Brass instruments—such as the French valved cornet and keyed German trumpet—eventually inherited a counter-voice role.[46] Modern klezmer instrumentation is more commonly influenced by the instruments of the 19th century military bands than the earlier orchestras.Percussion in early 20th-century klezmer recordings was generally minimal—no more than a wood block or snare drum. In Eastern Europe, percussion was often provided by a drummer who played a frame drum, or poyk, sometimes called baraban. A poyk is similar to a bass drum and often has a cymbal or piece of metal mounted on top, which is struck by a beater or a small cymbal strapped to the hand.Melodic modesWestern, Cantorial, and Ottoman music terminologyKlezmer music is a genre that developed partly in the Western musical tradition but also in the Ottoman Empire, and is primarily an oral tradition which does not have a well-established literature to explain its modes and modal progression.[47][48] But, as with other types of Ashkenazic Jewish music, it has a complex system of modes which were used in its compositions.[10][49] Many of its melodies do not fit well in the major and minor terminology used in Western music, nor is the music systematically microtonal in the way that Middle Eastern music is.[47] Nusach terminology, as developed for Cantorial music in the nineteenth century, is often used instead, and indeed many klezmer compositions draw heavily on religious music.[34] But it also incorporates elements of Baroque and Eastern European folk musics, making description based only on religious terminology incomplete.[25][29][50] Still, since the Klezmer revival of the 1970s, the terms for Jewish prayer modes are the most common to describe those used in klezmer.[51] The terms used in Yiddish for these modes include nusach (נוסח); shteyger (שטײגער), "manner, mode of life", which describes the typical melodic character, important notes and scale; and gust (גוסט), a word meaning "taste" which was commonly used by Moisei Beregovsky.[29][30][48]Beregovsky, who was writing in the Stalinist era and was constrained by having to downplay klezmer's religious aspects, did not use the terminology of synagogue modes, except in some early work in 1929. Instead, he relied on German-inspired musical terminology of major, minor, and "other" modes, which he described in technical terms.[30][52] In his 1940s works he noted that the majority of the klezmer repertoire seemed to be in a minor key, whether natural minor or others, that around a quarter of the material was in Freygish, and that around a fifth of the repertoire was in a major key.[30]Another set of terminology sometimes used to describe klezmer music is that of the Makams used in Ottoman and other Middle Eastern music.[51][53] This approach dates back to Idelsohn in the early twentieth century, who was very familiar with Middle Eastern music, and has been developed in the past decade by Joshua Horowitz.[54][50][51][47]Finally, some Klezmer music, and especially that composed in the United States from the mid-twentieth century onwards, may not be composed with these traditional modes, but rather built around chords.[25]DescriptionBecause there is no agreed-upon, complete system for describing modes in Klezmer music, this list is imperfect and may conflate concepts which some scholars view as separate.[49][54] Another problem in listing these terms as simple eight-note (octatonic) scales is that it makes it harder to see how Klezmer melodic structures can work as five-note pentachords, how parts of different modes typically interact, and what the cultural significance of a given mode might be in a traditional Klezmer context.[47][48]Freygish mode in CFreygish, Ahavo Rabboh, or Phrygian dominant scale resembles the Phrygian mode, having a flat second but also a permanent raised third.[55] It is among the most common modes in Klezmer and is closely identified with Jewish identity; Beregovsky estimated that roughly a quarter of the Klezmer music he had collected was in Freygish.[30][47] Among the most well-known pieces composed in this mode are "Hava Nagila" and "Ma yofus". It is comparable to the Maqam Hijaz found in Arabic music.[47]Mi Sheberakh mode in CMi Sheberakh, Av HaRachamim, "altered Dorian" or Ukrainian Dorian scale is a minor mode which has a raised fourth.[55] It is sometimes compared to Nikriz Makamı. It is closely related to Freygish since they share the same pitch intervals.[47] This mode is often encountered in Doynes and other Klezmer forms with connections to Romanian or Ukrainian music.Adonoy Molokh mode in CAdonoy Molokh or Adoyshem Molokh a synagogue mode with a flatted seventh.[29] It is sometimes called the "Jewish major".[54] It has some similarities to the Mixolydian mode.[55]Mogen Ovos mode in CMogen Ovos is a synagogue mode which resembles the Western natural minor.[29] In klezmer music, it is often found in greeting and parting pieces, as well as dance tunes.[47] It has some similarities to the Bayati maqam used in Arabic and Turkish music.Yishtabakh resembles Mogen Ovos and Freygish. It is a variant of the Mogen Ovos scale that frequently flattens the second and fifth degrees.[56]HistoryEuropeDevelopment of the genreThe Bible has several descriptions of orchestras and Levites making music, but after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, many rabbis discouraged musical instruments.[57] Therefore, while there may have been Jewish musicians in different times and places since then, the "Klezmer" arose much more recently.[58] The earliest written record of the use of the word was identified by Isaac Rivkind [he] as being in a Jewish council meeting from Kraków in 1595.[59][60] They may have existed even earlier in Prague, as references to them have been found as early as 1511 and 1533.[61] It was in the 1600s that the situation of Jewish musicians in Poland improved, as they gained the right to form Guilds (Khevre), and therefore to set their own fees, hire Christians, and so on.[62] Therefore over time this new form of professional musician developed new forms of music and elaborated this tradition across a wide area of Eastern European Jewish life. The rise of Hasidic Judaism in the late eighteenth century and onwards also contributed to the development of klezmer, due to their emphasis on dancing and wordless melodies as a component of Jewish practice.[17]Medieval Jewish wedding procession (date unknown)The Eastern European klezmer profession (1700–1930s)Portrait of Pedotser (A. M. Kholodenko), nineteenth century klezmer virtuosoThe nineteenth century also saw the rise of a number of klezmer violin virtuosos who combined the techniques of classical violinists such as Ivan Khandoshkin and of Bessarabian folk violinists, and who composed dance and display pieces that became widespread even after the composers were gone.[63] Among these figures were Aron-Moyshe Kholodenko "Pedotser", Yosef Drucker "Stempenyu", Alter Goyzman "Alter Chudnover" and Josef Gusikov.[64][65][66][67]Unlike in the United States, where there was a robust Klezmer recording industry, there was relatively less recorded in Europe in the early twentieth century. The majority of European recordings of Jewish music consisted of Cantorial and Yiddish Theatre music, with only a few dozen known to exist of Klezmer music.[68] These include violin pieces by artists such as Oscar Zehngut, H. Steiner, Leon Ahl, and Josef Solinski; flute pieces by S. Kosch, and ensemble recordings by Belf's Romanian Orchestra, the Russian-Jewish Orchestra, Jewish Wedding Orchestra, and Titunshnayder's Orchestra.[68][69]Klezmer in the late Russian empire and Soviet eraThe loosening of restrictions on Jews in the Russian Empire, and their newfound access to academic and conservatory training, created a class of scholars who began to reexamine and evaluate klezmer using modern techniques.[30] Abraham Zevi Idelsohn was one such figure, who sought to find an ancient Middle Eastern origin for Jewish music in the diaspora.[70] There was also new interest in collecting and studying Jewish music and folklore, including Yiddish songs, folk tales, and instrumental music. An early expedition was by Joel Engel, who collected folk melodies in his birthplace of Berdyansk in 1900. The first figure to collect large amounts of klezmer music was Susman Kiselgof, who made several expeditions to the Pale of Settlement from 1907 to 1915.[71] He was soon followed by other scholars such as Moisei Beregovsky and Sofia Magid, Soviet scholars of Yiddish and klezmer music.[72][30] Most of the materials collected in those expeditions are now held by the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine.[73]Klezmer musicians at a wedding, Ukraine, ca. 1925Beregovsky, writing in the late 1930s, lamented how little scholars knew about the range of playing technique and social context of Klezmers from past eras, except for the late nineteenth century which could be investigated through elderly musicians who still remembered it.[2]Jewish music in the Soviet Union, and the continued use of klezmer music, went through several phases of official support or censorship. The officially supported Soviet Jewish musical culture of 1920s involved works based on or satirizing traditional melodies and themes, whereas those of the 1930s were often "Russian" cultural works translated into a Yiddish context.[74] After 1948, Soviet Jewish culture entered a phase of repression, meaning that Jewish music concerts, whether tied to Hebrew, Yiddish, or instrumental klezmer, were no longer allowed to be performed.[75] Moisei Beregovsky's academic work was shut down in 1949 and he was arrested and deported to Siberia in 1951.[76][77] The repression was eased in the mid-1950s as some Jewish and Yiddish performances were allowed to return to the stage once again.[78] However, the main venue for klezmer has always been traditional community events and weddings, not the concert stage or academic institute; those traditional venues were repressed along with Jewish culture in general, according to anti-religious Soviet policy.[79]United StatesEarly American klezmer (1880s–1910s)The first klezmers to arrive in the United States followed the first large waves of Eastern European Jewish immigration which began after 1880, establishing themselves mainly in large cities like New York, Philadelphia and Boston.[17] Klezmers—often younger members of klezmer families, or less established musicians—started to arrive from the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Romania and Austria-Hungary.[80] Some of them found work in restaurants, dance halls, union rallies, wine cellars, and other modern venues in places like New York's Lower East Side.[81][82] But the major source of income for klezmer musicians seems to have remained weddings and Simchas, as in Europe.[83] Those early generations of klezmers are much more poorly documented than those working in the 1910s and 1920s; many never recorded or published music, although some are remembered through family or community history, such as the Lemish klezmer family of Iași, Romania, who arrived in Philadelphia in the 1880s and established a klezmer dynasty there.[84][83]Big band klezmer orchestras (1910s–1920s)Max Leibowitz orchestra from 1921The vitality of the Jewish music industry in major American cities attracted ever more klezmers from Europe in the 1910s. This coincided with the development of the recording industry, which recorded a number of these klezmer orchestras. By the time of the First World War, the industry turned its attention to ethnic dance music and a number of bandleaders were hired by record companies such as Edison Records, Emerson Records, Okeh Records, and the Victor Recording Company to record 78 rpm discs.[85] The first of these was Abe Elenkrig, a barber and cornet player from a klezmer family in Ukraine whose 1913 recording Fon der Choope (From the Wedding) has been recognized by the Library of Congress.[86][87][88]Among the European-born klezmers recording during that decade were some from the Ukrainian territory of the Russian Empire (Abe Elenkrig, Dave Tarras, Shloimke Beckerman, Joseph Frankel, and Israel J. Hochman), some from Austro-Hungarian Galicia (Naftule Brandwein, Harry Kandel and Berish Katz), and some from Romania (Abe Schwartz, Max Leibowitz, Max Yankowitz, Joseph Moskowitz).[89][90][91][92]The mid-1920s also saw a number of popular novelty "Klezmer" groups which performed on the radio or vaudeville stages. These included Joseph Cherniavsky's Yiddish-American Jazz Band, whose members would dress as parodies of Cossacks or Hasidim.[93] Another such group was the Boibriker Kapelle, which performed on the radio and in concerts trying to recreate a nostalgic, old-fashioned Galician Klezmer sound.[94] With the passing of the Immigration Act of 1924, which greatly restricted Jewish immigration from Europe, and then the onset of the Great Depression by 1930, the market for Yiddish and klezmer recordings in the United States saw a steep decline, which essentially ended the recording career of many of the popular bandleaders of the 1910s and 1920s, and made the large klezmer orchestra less viable.[95]Celebrity clarinetistsAlong with the rise of klezmer "big bands" in the 1910s and 1920s, a handful of Jewish clarinet players who had led those bands became celebrities in their own right, with a legacy that lasted into subsequent decades. The most popular among these were Naftule Brandwein, Dave Tarras, and Shloimke Beckerman.[96][97][98]Klezmer revivalIn the mid-to-late 1970s there was a klezmer revival in the United States and Europe, led by Giora Feidman, The Klezmorim, Zev Feldman, Andy Statman, and the Klezmer Conservatory Band. They drew their repertoire from recordings and surviving musicians of U.S. klezmer.[99] In particular, clarinetists such as Dave Tarras and Max Epstein became mentors to this new generation of klezmer musicians.[100] In 1985, Henry Sapoznik and Adrienne Cooper founded KlezKamp to teach klezmer and other Yiddish music.[101]Elane Hoffman Watts, klezmer drummer, in 2007The 1980s saw a second wave of revival, as interest grew in more traditionally inspired performances with string instruments, largely with non-Jews of the United States and Germany. Musicians began to track down older European klezmer, by listening to recordings, finding transcriptions, and making field recordings of the few klezmorim left in Eastern Europe. Key performers in this style are Joel Rubin, Budowitz, Khevrisa, Di Naye Kapelye, Yale Strom, The Chicago Klezmer Ensemble, The Maxwell Street Klezmer Band, the violinists Alicia Svigals, Steven Greenman,[102] Cookie Segelstein and Elie Rosenblatt, flutist Adrianne Greenbaum, and tsimbl player Pete Rushefsky. Bands like Brave Old World, Hot Pstromi and The Klezmatics also emerged during this period.In the 1990s, musicians from the San Francisco Bay Area helped further interest in klezmer music by taking it into new territory. Groups such as the New Klezmer Trio inspired a new wave of bands merging klezmer with other forms of music, such as John Zorn's Masada and Bar Kokhba, Naftule's Dream, Don Byron's Mickey Katz project and violinist Daniel Hoffman's klezmer/jazz/Middle-Eastern fusion band Davka.[99] The New Orleans Klezmer All-Stars[103] also formed in 1991 with a mixture of New Orleans funk, jazz, and klezmer styles.Starting in 2008, "The Other Europeans" project, funded by several EU cultural institutions,[104] spent a year doing intensive field research in the region of Moldavia under the leadership of Alan Bern and scholar Zev Feldman. They wanted to explore klezmer and lăutari roots, and fuse the music of the two "other European" groups. The resulting band now performs internationally.A separate klezmer tradition had developed in Israel in the 20th century. Clarinetists Moshe Berlin and Avrum Leib Burstein are known exponents of the klezmer style in Israel. To preserve and promote klezmer music in Israel, Burstein founded the Jerusalem Klezmer Association, which has become a center for learning and performance of klezmer music in the country.[105]Since the late 1980s, an annual klezmer festival is held every summer in Safed, in the north of Israel.[106][107]Popular cultureIn musicWhile traditional performances may have been on the decline, many Jewish composers who had mainstream success, such as Leonard Bernstein and Aaron Copland, continued to be influenced by the klezmeric idioms heard during their youth (as Gustav Mahler had been). George Gershwin was familiar with klezmer music, and the opening clarinet glissando of "Rhapsody in Blue" suggests this influence, although the composer did not compose klezmer directly.[108] Some clarinet stylings of swing jazz bandleaders Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw can be interpreted as having been derived from klezmer, as can the "freilach swing" playing of other Jewish artists of the period such as trumpeter Ziggy Elman.At the same time, non-Jewish composers were also turning to klezmer for a prolific source of fascinating thematic material. Dmitri Shostakovich in particular admired klezmer music for embracing both the ecstasy and the despair of human life, and quoted several melodies in his chamber masterpieces, the Piano Quintet in G minor, op. 57 (1940), the Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, op. 67 (1944), and the String Quartet No. 8 in C minor, op. 110 (1960).The compositions of Israeli-born composer Ofer Ben-Amots incorporate aspects of klezmer music, most notably his 2006 composition Klezmer Concerto. The piece is for klezmer clarinet (written for Jewish clarinetist David Krakauer),[109] string orchestra, harp and percussion.[110]In visual artIssachar Ber Ryback - Wedding CeremonyThe figure of the klezmer, as a romantic symbol of nineteenth century Jewish life, appeared in the art of a number of twentieth century Jewish artists such as Anatoli Lvovich Kaplan, Issachar Ber Ryback, Marc Chagall, and Chaim Goldberg. Kaplan, making his art in the Soviet Union, was quite taken by the romantic images of the Klezmer in literature, and in particular in Sholem Aleichem's Stempenyu, and depicted them in rich detail.[111]In filmYidl Mitn Fidl (1936), directed by Joseph GreenFiddler on the Roof (1971), directed by Norman JewisonLes Aventures de Rabbi Jacob (1973), directed by Gérard OuryJewish Soul Music: The Art of Giora Feidman (1980), directed by Uri BarbashA Jumpin' Night in the Garden of Eden (1988), directed by Michal GoldmanFiddlers on the Hoof (1989), directed by Simon BroughtonThe Last Klezmer: Leopold Kozlowski: His Life and Music (1994), directed by Yale StromBeyond Silence (1996), about a klezmer-playing clarinetist, directed by Charlotte LinkA Tickle in the Heart (1996), directed by Stefan Schwietert[112]Itzhak Perlman: In the Fiddler's House (1996), aired 29 June 1996 on Great Performances (PBS/WNET television series)L'homme est une femme comme les autres (1998, directed by Jean-Jacques Zilbermann with soundtrack by Giora Feidman)Dummy (2002), directed by Greg PritikinKlezmer on Fish Street (2003), directed by Yale StromLe Tango des Rashevski (2003) directed by Sam GarbarskiKlezmer in Germany (2007), directed by Kryzstof Zanussi and C. GoldieA Great Day on Eldridge Street (2008), directed by Yale StromThe "Socalled" Movie (2010), directed by Garry BeitelIn literatureIn Jewish literature, the klezmer was often represented as a romantic and somewhat unsavory figure.[113] However, in nineteenth century works by writers such as Mendele Mocher Sforim and Sholem Aleichem they were also portrayed as great artists and virtuosos who delighted the masses.[30] Klezmers also appeared in non-Jewish Eastern European literature, such as in the epic poem Pan Tadeusz, which depicted a character named Jankiel Cymbalist, or in the short stories of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch.[12] In George Eliot's Daniel Deronda (1876), the German Jewish music teacher is named Herr Julius Klesmer.[114] The novel was later adapted into a Yiddish musical by Avram Goldfaden titled Ben Ami (1908).[115] *****5407 folder 198 folder187



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