1800'S HAMPTON UNIVERSITY AFRICAN AMERICAN CABINET CARD PHOTO SCIENTISTS For Sale
1800'S HAMPTON UNIVERSITY AFRICAN AMERICAN CABINET CARD PHOTO SCIENTISTS:
A SCARCE 1800'S CABINET PHOTO OF AFRICAN AMERICAN SCIENTISTS FROM HAMPTON UNIVERSITY (FOUND IN A HAMPTON UNIVERSITY PHOTO ALBUM)Hampton University (HU) is a private historically black university in Hampton, Virginia. It was founded in 1868 by black and white leaders of the American Missionary Association after the American Civil War to provide education to freedmen. It is home to the Hampton University Museum, which is the oldest museum of the African diaspora in the United States, and the oldest museum in the state of Virginia. In 1878, it established a program for teaching Native Americans that lasted until 1923.
Under a Simple Oak TreeThe year was 1861. The American Civil War had shortly begun and the Union Army held control of Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. In May of that year, Union Major General Benjamin Butler decreed that any escaping slaves reaching Union lines would be considered "contraband of war" and would not be returned to bondage. This resulted in waves of enslaved people rushing to the fort in search of freedom. A camp to house the newly freed slaves was built several miles outside the protective walls of Fort Monroe. It was named "The Grand Contraband Camp" and functioned as the United States' first self-contained African American community.
In order to provide the masses of refugees some kind of education, Mary Peake, a free Negro, was asked to teach, even though an 1831 Virginia law foroffer the education of slaves, free blacks and mulattos. She held her first class, which consisted of about twenty students, on September 17, 1861 under a simple oak tree. This tree would later be known as the Emancipation Oak and would become the site of the first Southern reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. Today, the Emancipation Oak still stands on the Hampton University campus as a lasting symbol of the promise of education for all, even in the face of adversity.The Hampton Normal SchoolIn 1863, using government funds to continue the work started by Mary Peake, General Butler founded the Butler School for Negro children, where students were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and grammar, as well as various housekeeping skills.
Brigadier General Samuel Armstrong was appointed in 1866 to Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau of the Ninth District of Virginia. Drawing upon his experiences with mission schools in Hawaii, he procured funding from the American Missionary Association to establish a school on the Wood Farm, also known as "Little Scotland" adjacent to the Butler School. On April 1, 1868, Armstrong opened Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute with a simple declared purpose.
"The thing to be done was clear: to train selected Negro youth who should go out and teach and lead their people first by example, by getting land and homes; to give them not a dollar that they could earn for themselves; to teach respect for labor, to replace stupid drudgery with skilled hands, and in this way to build up an industrial system for the sake not only of self-support and intelligent labor, but also for the sake of character."
Practical experience in trades and industrial skills were emphasized and students were able to pay their way through school by working in various jobs throughout the burgeoning campus. The Butler School, which was succeeded in 1889 by the Whittier School, was used as a practice ground for teaching students of the Hampton Normal School.A New StudentBy 1872, Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute was flourishing and drawing students from all over the country. One day that year, a young man met with the assistant principal to request admission. His clothing and person were so unkempt from his long journey he was nearly turned away. The assistant principal asked him to sweep the recitation room. The young man, excited at the prospect of work, not only swept the floor three times but thoroughly dusted the room four times, thereby passing a rigorous "white glove" inspection. Upon seeing the results of his work, the assistant principal said quietly, "I guess you will do to enter this institution."
The newly accepted student was Booker T. Washington, who would become Hampton's most distinguished graduate. At only 25 years old, at the request of General Armstrong, Washington helped found Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881.Native Americans ArriveDuring the night of April 18, 1878, a group of Native Americans arrived in Hampton from Fort Sill, where they had been imprisoned at the close of the Red River War. No longer considered dangerous, they were sent to Hampton at the request of General Armstrong. These seventy men and women became the first American Indian students at Hampton and began a Native American education program that spanned more than 40 years, with the last student graduating in 1923.The Trade School EraThroughout the 1880s and 1890s, Hampton Normal School saw a dramatic increase in enrollment and educational offerings, which created a need not only for additional dormitory space, but also for auxiliary facilities. A number of buildings were constructed during this twenty-year span, including Whipple Barn, Wigwam (the American Indian boy's dormitory), Holly Tree Inn, and the Armstrong-Slater Trade School, most all of them built by Hampton students.
The new trade school would offer instruction in farming, carpentry, harnessmaking, printing, tailoring, clocksmithing, blacksmithing, painting, and wheelwrighting. By 1904, nearly three-fourths of all boys at Hampton were taking trades classes. In addition to expansion of the agricultural program in 1913, Hampton's music program flourished under the direction of Dr. R. Nathaniel Dett, who brought the Hampton Choir and Quartet to the world through highly acclaimed performances in London, Vienna, Zurich, Berlin, Geneva, and Paris.Hampton Institute – The CollegeEnhancing Hampton's curriculum to meet the stringent requirements of college level accreditation was the focus during the late 1900s and throughout the 1920s. Many new programs were added and the requirements for existing courses were raised to meet the new standard Hampton placed upon itself. A Library Science School was established in 1924 and an extension program was begun in 1929 to reach students who were unable to come to campus. The Robert C. Ogden Auditorium was built in 1918 and with two thousand seats, it was at the time the largest auditorium in the area. Today, Ogden Hall is considered one of the finest acoustical venues in the nation.
In the Principal's report of 1929, Hampton President Dr. James Edward Gregg stated that "Hampton Institute is now a college." He went on to state that, "Every one of its collegiate divisions or schools–Agriculture, Home Economics, Education, Business, Building, Librarianship, Music–is fitting its students for their life-work as teachers or as practitioners in their chosen calling."
On July 1, 1930, Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute became Hampton Institute and the title of Principal–Dr. George Phenix at the time–was changed to President.The Great DepressionThe 1930s brought with it the Great Depression and intense challenges for Hampton Institute. Already confronted with an overwhelming budget deficit, the college experienced a decrease in enrollment and budget cuts and staff dismissals were common. To cut costs, the Library School was discontinued in 1940 and the Nursing School was taken over by a local hospital that same year.
When America became involved in World War II, financial relief would soon arrive to Hampton Institute as the federal government established war training facilities on the campus. After the war, many of the military training buildings were purchased by the college and are still in use today.
In addition to Hampton's financial troubles, many felt that the school's decades-old educational philosophies no longer applied to a changing racial climate where the emerging youth began to question accepted policies and procedures. Students wanted more self-governance and a change in many of the regulations. While the Hampton staff was interracial, there were no Negroes employed as heads of departments and schools. Thus, in 1940, a few high-ranking administrative positions–including Dean of Instruction and Dean of Women–were appointed to Negroes. And in 1949, Dr. Alonzo G. Moron became the first Negro president of Hampton Institute.A New Wave of GrowthDuring the 1950s, programs in Agriculture and the trades were phased out due to decreased enrollment and a change in the American workforce climate. However, a number of new programs were initiated, including graduate studies in Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics.
During the tenure of Hampton Institute's ninth President, Dr. Jerome H. Holland, the college experienced a decade of growth in every facet and program. Twelve new buildings were constructed, faculty numbers increased, average salaries doubled, and student enrollment reached 2,600 by 1969. New programs and departments were established, including a computer technology program, the College of Cooperative Education, and a Department of Mass Media Arts.
Accompanying Hampton's steady growth in the 1960s was the controversial landscape of the Civil Rights Movement and the changing attitudes of Negroes, who were finally able to see the promise of first-class citizenship and equal educational and economic opportunity in a democratic society. Noted civil rights leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King, visited the Hampton campus. In 1957, two years after being arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white bus passenger, Rosa Parks moved to the Hampton area where she worked on campus as a hostess at The Holly Tree Inn. On February 11, 1960, a group of Hampton Institute students were the first in Virginia to stage a lunch counter sit-in, to protest local business' refusal to serve blacks and whites equally.Continuing the TraditionThe social unrest of the 1960s spilled over into the 1970s as students demanded a wider variety of courses, coed living on campus, and a stronger voice in the Administrative Council and the Board of Trustees. In the face of student protests, bomb threats, and dormitory fires, Hampton President Dr. Roy Hudson managed to improve relations with students and expand many programs, including the college's Engineering program, through partnerships with other universities.
Dr. William R. Harvey was unanimously elected the twelfth President of Hampton Institute in 1978. His efforts included outlining a core set of required courses, establishing an M.B.A. program and centers for high-tech scientific research, and expanding the Continuing Education Program. By 1983, student enrollment had reached nearly four thousand and SAT scores of entering freshmen increased by 93 points, even though national enrollment levels and SAT scores were plummeting.
In 1984, after a nine-month study of Hampton Institute's rapid growth and development in quality of students, faculty and academic offerings, the recommendation was made to change the name to Hampton University.
Today, over 140 years after its inception, Hampton University continues to break new ground in academic achievement, staying true to General Armstrong's original promise of The Standard of Excellence, An Education for Life.Other universities simply teach history. Hampton University puts you right in the middle of it. Because, as you'll soon discover, you're not just a part of Hampton University - Hampton University is a part of you.
While our roots reach deep into the history of this nation and the African-American experience, our sights – like yours – are set squarely on the horizons of the global community of the 21st century.
Rich in history, steeped in tradition, Hampton University is a dynamic, progressive institution of higher education, providing a broad range of technical, liberal arts, and graduate degree programs. In addition to being one of the top historically black universities in the world, Hampton University is a tightly-knit community of learners and educators, representing 49 states and 35 territories and nations.
Hampton University is nestled along the banks of the Virginia Peninsula, near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. The surrounding city of Hampton features a wide array of business and industrial enterprises, retail and residential areas, historical sites, and miles of waterfront and beaches. Attractions such as Fort Monroe, NASA Langley Research Center, and the Virginia Air and Space Center add to the splendor – and just plain fun – of the HU campus.
Hampton University (HU) is a private historically black university in Hampton, Virginia. It was founded in 1868 by black and white leaders of the American Missionary Association after the American Civil War to provide education to freedmen. It is home to the Hampton University Museum, which is the oldest museum of the African diaspora in the United States, and the oldest museum in the state of Virginia. In 1878, it established a program for teaching Native Americans that lasted until 1923.Contents1 History1.1 Civil War1.2 After the War: teaching teachers1.3 Booker T. Washington: spreading the educational work1.4 Native Americans1.5 Name changes, expansion, and community1.6 2018 student protests and demands2 Campus2.1 National Historic Landmark District2.2 Student demographics3 Academics4 Student activities4.1 Campus events4.2 Greek Life and Organizations4.3 Athletics5 Notable alumni5.1 Business5.2 Education5.3 Entertainment and the Arts5.4 Politics and Government5.5 Science, Health Care, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics5.6 Sociology and Humanities5.7 Sports6 See also7 References8 Further reading9 External linksHistoryThe campus looking south across the harbor of Hampton Roads was founded on the grounds of "Little Scotland", a former plantation in Elizabeth City County not far from Fortress Monroe and the Grand Contraband Camp that gathered nearby. These facilities represented freedom to former slaves, who sought refuge with Union forces during the first year of the war.
The American Missionary Association (AMA) responded in 1861 to the former slaves' need for education by hiring its first teacher, Mary Smith Peake, who had secretly been teaching slaves and free blacks in the area despite the state's prohibition in law. She first taught for the AMA on September 17, 1861, and was said to gather her pupils under a large oak. After the tree was the site of the first reading in the former Confederate states of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, it was called the Emancipation Oak. The tree, now a symbol of the university and of the city, is part of the National Historic Landmark District at Hampton University.
The Hampton Agricultural and Industrial School, later called the Hampton Institute, was founded in 1868 after the war by the biracial leadership of the AMA, who were chiefly Congregational and Presbyterian ministers. It was first led by former Union General Samuel Chapman Armstrong. Among the school's famous alumni is Dr. Booker T. Washington, an educator who founded the Tuskegee Institute.
Civil WarDuring the American Civil War (1861–1865), Union-held Fortress Monroe in southeastern Virginia at the mouth of Hampton Roads became a gathering point and safe haven of sorts for fugitive slaves. The commander, General Benjamin F. Butler, determined they were "contraband of war", to protect them from being returned to slaveholders, who clamored to reclaim them. As numerous individuals sought freedom behind Union lines, the Army arranged for the construction of the Grand Contraband Camp nearby, from materials reclaimed from the ruins of Hampton, which had been burned by the retreating Confederate Army. This area was later called "Slabtown."
Hampton University traces its roots to the work of Mary S. Peake, which began in 1861 with outdoor classes which she taught under the landmark Emancipation Oak in the nearby area of Elizabeth City County. The newly issued Emancipation Proclamation was first read to a gathering under the historic tree there in 1863.
After the War: teaching teachers
Hampton Institute, 1898
An 1899 class in mathematical geographyAfter the War, a normal school (teacher training school) was formalized in 1868, with former Union brevet Brigadier General Samuel C. Armstrong (1839–1893) as its first principal. The new school was established on the grounds of a former plantation named "Little Scotland", which had a view of Hampton Roads. The original school buildings fronted the Hampton River. Legally chartered in 1870 as a land grant school, it was first known as Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute.
Typical of historically black colleges, Hampton received much of its financial support in the years following the Civil War from the American Missionary Association (whose black and white leaders represented the Congregational and Presbyterian churches), other church groups and former officers and soldiers of the Union Army. One of the many Civil War veterans who gave substantial sums to the school was General William Jackson Palmer, a Union cavalry commander from Philadelphia. He later built the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, and founded Colorado Springs, Colorado. As the Civil War began in 1861, although his Quaker upbringing made Palmer abhor violence, his passion to see the slaves freed compelled him to enter the war. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for bravery in 1894. (The current Palmer Hall on the campus is named in his honor.)Students in an 1899 bricklaying classUnlike the wealthy Palmer, Sam Armstrong was the son of a missionary to the Sandwich Islands (which later became the U.S. state of Hawaii). He also had dreams for the betterment of the freedmen. He patterned his new school after the model of his father, who had overseen the teaching of reading, writing and arithmetic to the Polynesians. He wanted to teach the skills necessary for blacks to be self-supporting in the impoverished South. Under his guidance, a Hampton-style education became well known as an education that combined cultural uplift with moral and manual training. Armstrong said it was an education that encompassed "the head, the heart, and the hands."
At the close of its first decade, the school reported a total admission in the ten years of 927 students, with 277 graduates, all but 17 of whom had become teachers. Many of them had bought land and established themselves in homes; many were farming as well as teaching; some had gone into business. Only a very small proportion failed to do well. By another 10 years, there had been over 600 graduates. In 1888, of the 537 still alive, three-fourths were teaching, and about half as many undergraduates were also teaching. It was estimated that 15,000 children in community schools were being taught by Hampton's students and alumni that year.
Booker T. Washington: spreading the educational workFurther information: Booker T. WashingtonAmong Hampton's earliest students was Booker T. Washington, who arrived from West Virginia in 1872 at the age of 16. He worked his way through Hampton, and then went on to attend Wayland Seminary in Washington D.C. After graduation, he returned to Hampton and became a teacher. Upon recommendation of Sam Armstrong to the founder Lewis Adams and others, of a small new school in Tuskegee Alabama that had begun in 1874. In 1881, Washington went to Tuskegee at age 25 to strengthen it and develop it to the status of a Normal school one recognized as being able to produce qualified teachers. This new institution eventually became Tuskegee University. Embracing much of Armstrong's philosophy, Washington built Tuskegee into a substantial school and became nationally famous as an educator, orator, and fund-raiser as well. He collaborated with the philanthropist Julius Rosenwald in the early 20th century to create a model for rural black schools – Rosenwald established a fund that matched monies raised by communities to build more than 5,000 schools for rural black children, mostly in the South. Washington recruited his Hampton classmate (1875), Charles W. Greene  to the work at Tuskegee in 1888 to found the Agriculture Department. Washington and Greene recruited George Washington Carver to the Tuskegee Agriculture faculty upon his graduation with a Masters degree from Iowa State University in 1896. Carver provided such technical strength in Agriculture that in 1900, Booker T. Washington assigned Greene to establish a demonstration of black business capability and economic independence off-campus in Tuskegee. This project, entirely black-owned, comprised 4,000 lots of real estate and was formally established and designated Greenwood in 1901, as a demonstration for black-owned business and residential districts in every city in the nation with a significant black population. After Booker T. Washington visited Tulsa, in what is now Tulsa Oklahoma in 1905 and addressed a large gathering there, the Oklahomans followed the Tuskegee model and named Tulsa's black-owned and operated district "Greenwood" in 1906.
Native AmericansIn 1878, Hampton established a formal education program for Native Americans. In 1875 at the end of the American Indian Wars, the United States Army sent seventy-two warriors from the Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche and Caddo Nations, to imprisonment and exile in St. Augustine, Florida. Essentially they were considered hostages to persuade their peoples in the West to keep peace. Richard Henry Pratt supervised them at Fort Marion and began to arrange for their education in the English language and American culture. Numerous visitors to St. Augustine from the North became interested in their cases and volunteered as teachers. They also provided them with art supplies, and some of the resulting works (including by David Pendleton Oakerhater) are held by the Smithsonian Institution. At the end of the warriors' incarceration, Pratt convinced seventeen to enroll at Hampton Institute for a fuller education. (Later Pratt founded the Carlisle Indian Industrial School based on the same philosophy of education and assimilation). Altogether, seventy Native Americans, young men and women from various tribes, mostly from the Plains rather than the acculturated tribes that had occupied Virginia, joined that first class. Because Virginia's aristocrats sometimes boasted of their Native American heritage through Pocahontas, it was hoped that the Native American students would help locals to accept the university's black students. The black students were also supposed to "civilize" the Native American students to current American society, and the Native Americans to "uplift the Negro[es]."
The program died in 1923, in the face of growing controversy over racial mingling. Native Americans stopped sending their boys to the school after some employers fired Native American men because they had been educated with blacks. The program's final director resigned because she could not prevent "amalgamation" between the Native American girls and black boys.
Name changes, expansion, and community
Virginia Cleveland HallHampton Normal and Agricultural Institute became simply Hampton Institute in 1930. In 1931 the George P. Phenix School for all age groups was opened there under principal Ian Ross. A new nurses' training school was attached to the Dixie Hospital, with Nina Gage as director. In 1945 the Austrian-American psychologist, art educator, and author of the influential text book Creative and Mental Growth Viktor Lowenfeld joined the Hampton faculty as an assistant professor of industrial arts and eventually became chair of the Art Department. By 1971 the university offered 42 evening classes in programs including "Educational Psychology", "Introduction to Oral Communication", "Modern Mathematics", and "Playwriting", among others. At the time, the tuition cost for these courses was $30 per semester hour. With the addition of departments and graduate programs, it became Hampton University in 1984. Originally located in Elizabeth City County, it was long-located in the Town of Phoebus, incorporated in 1900. Phoebus and Elizabeth City County were consolidated with the neighboring City of Hampton to form a much larger independent city in 1952. The City of Hampton uses the Emancipation Oak on its official seal. From 1960 to 1970, noted diplomat and educator Jerome H. Holland was president of the Hampton Institute.
2018 student protests and demandsIn early 2018, Hampton University students launched a protest calling for the university administration to address several concerns, including food quality, living conditions, and sexual assault. Students used the Twitter hashtag #HUTownHall to call attention to issues they believe to be longstanding and urgent. Students posted videos and photos of poorly maintained dorm rooms, insects in the food from the university cafe, and university administrators flustered at students' questions and concerns regarding sexual assault. The university released a statement indicating that it was "moving forward" to address student concerns and issues.
Aerial view of Hampton UniversityThe campus contains several buildings that contribute to its National Historic Landmark district: Virginia-Cleveland Hall (freshman female dormitory, as well as former home to the school's two cafeterias), Wigwam building (home to administrative offices), Academy Building (administrative offices), Memorial Chapel (religious services) and the President's Mansion House.
The original High School on the campus became Phenix Hall when Hampton City Public Schools opened a new Phenix High School in 1962. Phenix Hall was damaged in a minor fire on June 12, 2008.
The Hampton University Museum was founded in 1868 and is the nation's oldest African-American museum. The museum contains over 9,000 pieces, some of which are highly acclaimed.
Hampton University is home to 16 research centers. The Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute is the largest free-standing facility of its kind in the world.
The four libraries on campus are the William R. and Norma B. Harvey Library (main library), William H. Moses Jr. Architecture Library, the Music Library, and the Nursing Library.
The Emancipation Oak was cited by the National Geographic Society as one of the 10 great trees in the world.
The waterfront campus is settled near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.
National Historic Landmark DistrictHampton InstituteU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesU.S. National Historic Landmark DistrictVirginia Landmarks RegisterHampton University is located in VirginiaHampton UniversityShow map of VirginiaShow map of the United StatesShow allLocation NW of jct. of U.S. 60 and the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel, Hampton, VirginiaCoordinates 37°01′13″N 76°35′40″WArea 314 acres (127 ha)Built 1866Architect Richard Morris Hunt; Et al.NRHP reference # 69000323VLR # 114-0006Significant datesAdded to NRHP November 12, 1969Designated NHLD May 30, 1974Designated VLR September 9, 1969A 15-acre (61,000 m2) portion of the campus along the Hampton River, including many of the older buildings, is a U.S. National Historic Landmark District. Buildings included are:
Mansion House, original plantation residence of Little ScotlandVirginia Hall built in 1873Academic HallWigwamMarquand Memorial Chapel, a Romanesque Revival red brick chapel with a 150-foot (46 m) towerIn addition, Cleveland Hall, Ogden, and the Administration building are also included in the district.
The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969, and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1974.
Student demographicsAs reported by the university in 2015, nearly two-thirds of the student body is female, and the other third male. Approximately 90% of the population identifies as Black, and only 32% are Virginia residents.
Subgroup Total men 34%Total women 66%Black 90.65%White 5.13%Hispanic 1.29%Asian or Pacific Islander 1.08%
AcademicsHampton University has 10 accredited schools and colleges.
School of Engineering and TechnologySchool of PharmacySchool of BusinessSchool of Journalism and CommunicationSchool of NursingSchool of Liberal Arts and EducationSchool of ScienceUniversity CollegeCollege of Virginia BeachGraduate CollegeThe Freddye T. Davy Honors College is a non-degree granting college that offers special learning opportunities and privileges to the most high-achieving undergraduates. To join the honors college, students must formally accept an invitation given by the college or directly apply for admissions into the college.
As of 2018, Hampton offers 50 baccalaureate programs, 26 master's programs, 7 doctoral programs, 2 professional programs, and 10 associate/certificate programs.
Hampton University consistently ranks among the top three HBCUs in the nation in various rankings. Hampton has the second highest graduation rate among HBCUs.
Hampton's student to faculty ratio is 10 to 1, which is better than the national university average of 18 to 1.
Hampton is the first and only HBCU to have 100% control of a NASA Mission.
The Alumni Factor named Hampton one of the seven best colleges in Virginia.
Hampton University is classified as a selective admissions institution.
Student activitiesCampus eventsNew Student Orientation (NSO) WeekAlumni DayParents' WeekendMister Pirate PageantMiss Hampton University PageantHampton HomecomingFall Open HouseHampton Founder's Day CelebrationBlack History ExtravaganzaSpring-FestAdmitted Students Day (ASD)Student Leader RetreatFreshmen WeekBattle of The StatesStudent Leadership ElectionsSophomore/Junior WeekSenior WeekDay of GivingReunion WeekendCommencementGreek Life and OrganizationsOrganization Chapter Name Chapter SymbolCIO Alpha Eta Rho - ΑΗΡ Omicron Gamma ΟΓNPHC Alpha Phi Alpha - ΑΦΑ Gamma Iota ΓΙNPHC Alpha Kappa Alpha - ΑΚΑ Gamma Theta ΓΘCIO Chi Eta Phi - ΧΗΦ Tau Beta ΤΒNPHC Delta Sigma Theta - ΔΣΘ Gamma Iota ΓΙCIO Groove Phi Groove - GΦG Pirate NPHC Iota Phi Theta - ΙΦΘ Beta ΒNPHC Kappa Alpha Psi - ΚΑΨ Beta Chi ΒΧNPHC Omega Psi Phi - ΩΨΦ Gamma Epsilon ΓΕCIO Pershing Angels Company U-4-5 U-4-5CIO Pershing Rifles Company U-4 U-4NPHC Phi Beta Sigma - ΦΒΣ Beta Gamma ΒΓCIO Phi Mu Alpha - ΦΜΑ Pi Beta ΠΒCIO Sigma Alpha Iota - ΣΑΙ Mu Gamma ΜΓNPHC Sigma Gamma Rho - ΣΓΡ Zeta Xi ΖΞCIO Swing Phi Swing - SΦS Upenda Undergraduate CIO Tau Beta Sigma - ΤΒΣ Theta Phi ΘΦNPHC Zeta Phi Beta - ΖΦΒ Rho Alpha ΡΑZildjian Phi Zildjian - ΖΦΖ Zeta Delta ΖΔ
AthleticsMain article: Hampton PiratesHampton's colors are blue and white, and their nickname is "The Pirates". Hampton sports teams participate in NCAA Division I (FCS for football) in the Big South Conference. They joined this in 2018 upon leaving the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Before joining the Big South, Hampton won MEAC titles in many sports, including football, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's track, and men's and women's tennis. Hampton is one of two NCAA Division 1 HBCU institutions (along with Tennessee State University, in the Ohio Valley Conference) to not be a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference or Southwestern Athletic Conference.
In 2016, Hampton became the first and only HBCU to field a Division I men's lacrosse team. ESPN held a broadcast on campus preceding the inaugural game in Armstrong Stadium.
Hampton is the only HBCU with a competitive sailing team.Hampton University athletics logoIn 2001, the Hampton basketball team won its first NCAA Tournament game, when they beat Iowa State 58–57, in one of the largest upsets of all time. They were only the fourth fifteen-seed to upset a two-seed in the tournament's history. They returned to the tournament a year later, as well as in 2006, 2011, 2015 and 2016, having won their conference basketball tournament. Their NCAA tournament record is 2–6, including the play-in game.
The "Lady Pirates" basketball team has seen great success as well, and made trips to the NCAA tournament in 2000, 2003, 2004, 2010–2014, and 2017. In 1988, as a Division II school, the Lady Pirates won the NCAA Women's Division II Basketball Championship, defeating West Texas State. In 2011, as a number-13 seed, the Lady Pirates nearly upset Kentucky, but fell in overtime, 66-62. In 2015, the Lady Pirates played in the Women's NIT, where they defeated Drexel 45-42 in the opening round. However, in the second round, the team lost to West Virginia 57-39.
The Pirates won their conference title in football in 1997, shared the title 1998 and 2004, and won it again outright in 2005 and 2006. From 2004 to 2006, the team won three MEAC Championships and three SBN-Black College National Championships, and was ranked in the Division I FCS top 25 poll each year. The Pirates also sent five players to the NFL Combine in 2007, the most out of any FCS subdivision school for that year. They have also been dominant in tennis, winning the MEAC from 1996 to 1999, 2001–2003 and 2007 for the men, and 1998 and 2002–2004 for the women.
Major rivals include Norfolk State University, located across Hampton Roads in downtown Norfolk, and Howard University in Washington, D.C.
Pirate athletics are supported by a plethora of groups, including "The Force" Marching Band. The marching band has appeared at several notable events, including a Barack Obama Presidential Inauguration parade in Washington, DC. "The Force" was chosen out of a large pool of applicants to participate in the parade as the representative for the state of Virginia. "The Force" is complemented by the "Ebony Fire" all-women dance team, as well as "Silky", the flag team, and as of 2018, "Shimmering Sapphire Elegance" the majorette team. On January 4, 2019, The Force announced that they will be the first HBCU to participate in the 2020 Rome New Years Day Parade.
Notable alumniBusinessName Class year Notability Reference(s)Robert S. Abbott 1896 founder of The Chicago Defender Percy Creuzot 1949 founder of Frenchy's Chicken in Houston, Texas Charles Phillips 1986 CEO of Infor; former President of Oracle Corporation EducationName Class year Notability Reference(s)St. Clair Drake 1931 sociologist and anthropologist; created the first African and African American studies program at Stanford University Martha Louise Morrow Foxx blind educator Freeman A. Hrabowski III 1969 President of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County William C. Hunter Dean of the Tippie College of Business at University of Iowa Dr. Wilmer Leon political scientist and associate professor in the Political Science Department at Howard University; talk show host on Urban View Channel 110 on Sirius XM Radio Kimberly Oliver 2006 National Teacher of the Year Hugh R. Page 1977 professor of theology and Africana Studies at the University of Notre Dame Booker T. Washington 1875 founded Tuskegee University in Alabama Entertainment and the ArtsName Class year Notability Reference(s)John T. Biggers Harlem Renaissance muralist and founder of the Art Department at Texas Southern University J.I.D rapper Leslie Garland Bolling 1918 early 20th-century wood carver Ruth E. Carter 1982 Oscar award winning American costume designer Spencer Christian former weatherman for Good Morning America, 1986–1998 DJ Babey Drew 2003 disc jockey DJ Envy 1999 disc jockey and host of The Breakfast Club Brandon Fobbs 2002 actor; best known for his role in the film Pride Kevin Frazier sports anchor and entertainment news anchor Beverly Gooden 2005 writer and activist Biff Henderson stage manager and personality on the Late Show with David Letterman DJ Tay James 2009 disc jockey for Justin Bieber Dorothy Maynor concert singer Orpheus McAdoo 1876 minstrel show impresario; toured Britain, South Africa and Australia MC Ride musician; best known for being the lead vocalist of Death Grips Clarissa Sligh 1961 photographer, book artist Wanda Sykes 1986 comedian A. S. (Doc) Young 1941 sports journalist Politics and GovernmentName Class year Notability Reference(s)Honorable Roxanne E. Covington Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas Judge Allyson Kay Duncan 4th Circuit US Circuit Court Judge Vanessa D. Gilmore Federal Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas Theodore Theopolis Jones II Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, New York Gloria Gary Lawlah 1960 Secretary of Aging for the State of Maryland Spencer Overton 1990 election scholar, George Washington University Law School Douglas Palmer 1973 Mayor of Trenton, New Jersey Gregory M. Sleet US District Court Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Delaware Sylvia Trent-Adams 1987 First African-American nurse to serve as Surgeon General of the United States Charles Wesley Turnbull 1958 former governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands W. Carlton Weddington member of Ohio House of Representatives Ivory Lee Young Jr. 1986 City Councilmember with the Atlanta City Council District 3, Atlanta, Georgia 2002–2018 Stephanie Young 2006 Director of African American Outreach, Associate Director of Communications, The White House Science, Health Care, Technology, Engineering and MathematicsName Class year Notability Reference(s)William Claytor 1900 pioneering African American mathematician Mary Jackson 1942 Pioneering African-American engineer for NASA Susan La Flesche Picotte 1886 first Native American physician Sociology and HumanitiesName Class year Notability Reference(s)Clara Byrd Baker Educator, civic leader, and suffragette Alberta Williams King 1924 mother of Martin Luther King Jr. Elisabeth Omilami Chief Executive Officer of Hosea Feed the Hungry and Homeless Mychal Denzel Smith 2008 writer at The Nation, television commentator and author SportsName Class year Notability Reference(s)Chris Baker 2008 current NFL defensive tackle Darian Barnes former NFL running back Johnnie Barnes former NFL wide receiver Jamal Brooks 1999 former NFL linebacker James Carter award-winning track athlete Marcus Dixon current CFL defensive tackle; also played in the NFL for the Dallas Cowboys and the New York Jets Reggie Doss former NFL defensive end Justin Durant 2007 current NFL linebacker, Jacksonville Jaguars, Detroit Lions Kenrick Ellis current NFL defensive tackle, New York Jets Devin Green 2005 former NBA player Isaac Hilton former NFL defensive end Rick Mahorn 1980 former NBA player, Washington Bullets, Detroit Pistons, New Jersey Nets; WNBA Detroit Shock Head Coach Jerome Mathis former NFL wide receiver Nevin McCaskill former NFL offensive lineman Francena McCorory 2010 track and field, NCAA 400m three-time champion Marquay McDaniel 2007 CFL football player, Hamilton Tiger-Cats Dick Price 1957 former head football coach at Norfolk State University, 1974–1983; former head coach of track team and athletic director at Norfolk State Donovan Rose 1980 former NFL defensive back and former head coach of the Hampton Pirate football team Zuriel Smith 2002 former NFL wide receiver and return specialist Cordell Taylor former NFL defensive back Terrence Warren former NFL wide receiver Kellie Wells track and field Olympic athlete; 100m hurdle bronze medalist, 2012
food and the lack of maintenance of campus facilities.
The long-simmering situation at Hampton University is reaching a slow boil, pitting the student body against the university’s leadership and administration. Faced with a maelstrom of criticism over the school’s perceived apathy and lack of concern for the constituents of the heralded Virginia school, the Pirates of Hampton now face a quiet mutiny that has not only manifested itself on campus but has also spilled over onto social media and the public eye.
Hampton trails only Spelman College and Howard University on U.S. News & World Report’s 2018 list of the best HBCUs in America. Founded in 1868, the liberal arts institution of more than 4,600 students is always included in the list of historically black schools known as the “black Ivy League.”
On Feb. 20, Hampton students, frustrated by a number of unaddressed issues, held a town hall meeting to confront the school administration’s seeming indifference to the concerns repeatedly raised by various groups at the school. According to several Hampton students who spoke with The Root, the airing of grievances quickly turned contentious when students felt that Hampton’s leadership was ignoring and belittling their concerns.
One of the more important issues mentioned at the protests and by the students who reached out to The Root was what the students described as a prevailing culture of sexual assault on campus and the administration’s perceived unwillingness to address the issue.
Each freshman and transfer to Hampton is required to take a course called University 101, focused on the tradition of the college. According to the university, the U101 course covers test anxiety, personal finance, the dress code and even the alma mater. The student catalog describes the University 101 course as:
A one-semester required orientation course designed to improve the quality of the freshman experience for entering students by helping them understand the purpose and value of higher education at Hampton University, as well as the larger context in which that education takes place and the multicultural nature of the problems and concerns which it addresses; to develop positive attitudes toward the teaching learning process; and to acquire coping skills essential for successful college life.
Despite the school’s past problems with sexual assault, including a 2014 case of a faculty member allegedly assaulting a student and a report that the school is being investigated by the Department of Education’s Civil Rights Division for violating Title IX campus sexual-violence policies, Hampton still lags behind other schools in informing students about sexual assault on campus.
For comparison, since 2014, Howard University has mandated that all freshmen take Title IX training. According to student organizers, Hampton, in its University 101 course, has chosen to solve its campus problem of sexual misconduct in a unique way:
By not addressing it at all.
Article preview thumbnailReport: Hampton University faculty member charged with sexual batteryA Hampton University faculty member has been suspended pending an investigation after he was…
Read on dailypress.comEven more troubling, Hampton’s coordinator for Title IX—the law that protects against sexual discrimination in any institution that receives federal funding—is Kelly Harvey-Viney, the daughter of Hampton’s president of 40 years, William Harvey.
Students have complained that her position may conflict with the interests of victims of assault at the school, noting that some students may be reluctant to step forward to complain about rape and sexual assault if the Title IX program is headed by someone more interested in protecting the reputation of the university and its president. In a letter to the administration, the HU Student Collective proposed that the Title IX process for reporting sexual misconduct and understanding consent be embedded in the University 101 course.
Kimberly Burton, a graduating senior at Hampton and one of the many students who contacted The Root, noted: “The campus put up lights and emergency stations around campus to make sure students are safe.” She added, “Many of them—I’m standing in front of one of the emergency stations right now—just don’t work.”
In the Feb. 20 town hall, after a female student described her campus sexual assault and the university’s lack of response, instead of displaying empathy for the alleged victim or issuing an apology, President Harvey chose to interrupt and attack the student in an exchange shared on social media, despite Harvey’s insistence that students not record the proceedings:
In a statement about the summit, the university noted that it “appreciates the bravery of students who come forward to address the important issue of sexual assault.” It added:
The University empathizes with these students and considers this a very important matter. The Title IX Coordinator was present at the meeting and provided the group with an overview of the process. She agreed to provide students with additional educational sessions so they understand the process and feel comfortable with reporting incidents.
After the town hall, the student collective asked that Harvey-Viney resign her position as Hampton’s Title IX program coordinator or be reassigned to another department, citing her relationship with the president and what they see as a conflict of interest.
After witnessing this display of appreciation and empathy, why would any victim of sexual misconduct feel uneasy about taking any complaints to the daughter of this man?
Aside from the unsafe, nonworking lights and call stations, the conditions of facilities on campus have deteriorated into what some campus dwellers feel are hazardous. Students report rampant mold in dorms and unsanitary conditions in the student cafeteria.
Students report that maintenance requests often go unanswered, and the prevailing narrative is that the campus food-service department doesn’t care about cleanliness or the quality of the food.
“I am not a picky eater, but my friends and I bring our own silverware to the cafeteria,” said Burton, who has lived on campus for four years.
A follow-up report by the Student Government Association relayed: “As it relates to the current state of the dining hall, a picture was circulated by a female student which showed bugs on an apple pie tartlet. The bugs were not found until after the student left the dining hall. Therefore, it is not known when the bugs got on the dessert.”
In response, Doretha Spells, Hampton University’s vice president for business affairs and treasurer, noted that neither the dining hall nor Gourmet Services has failed an inspection, and pointed to a planned renovation of facilities, including the dining area.
After the heated Feb. 20 meeting, the administration at Hampton issued a list of proposals that it hoped would address the reported issues. But students felt that the administration’s response was eerily familiar to the previous ways it ignored the concerns. The students decided to counter the proposals with their own manifesto outlining their grievances.
They followed this with a silent march through campus that ended on Harvey’s front lawn and was attended by hundreds of enrollees at the school. In addition, students are using social media to protest and highlight the inaction and indifference at their university.Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. From the time of slavery in the 19th century through to the second half of the 20th century, majority schools in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while historic schools in other parts of the country regularly employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. There are 101 HBCUs in the United States, including public and private institutions. This figure is down from the 121 institutions that existed during the 1930s. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 schools offer master's programs, 83 colleges offer bachelor's degree programs and 38 schools offer associate degrees.Contents1 History1.1 Private institutions1.2 Public institutions1.3 Sports1.4 World War II1.5 Florida's black junior colleges1.6 Since 19652 Current status2.1 Racial diversity post-20002.2 Special academic programs2.3 Intercollegiate sports2.4 Notable alumni3 See also4 References5 Further reading6 External linksHistory
Cheyney University, first HBCU founded in 1837.Private institutionsMost HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War, often with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations. However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania (1837) and Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) (1854), were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring Wilberforce University, the third college in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War. The year 1865 also saw the foundation of Storer College (1865–1955) at Harper's Ferry, WV. Storer has now been incorporated into Harper's Ferry National Park.Shaw University, first HBCU in the South founded in 1865.Public institutionsIn 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state. Some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks. But 17 states, mostly in the South, required their systems to be segregated and generally excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890, also known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college. Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research, extension and outreach activities.
SportsIn the 1920s and 1930s the historically black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding rapidly at state universities, but very few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches, recruited and featured stellar athletes, and set up their own leagues.
World War IIMany Jewish intellectuals fleeing Germany in the 1930s after the rise of Hitler to power in Nazi Germany immigrated to the United States and found work teaching in historically black colleges.
HBCUs made great contributions to the war effort, including those of the Tuskegee Airmen, who trained and attended classes at Tuskegee University in Alabama.
Florida's black junior collegesAfter the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population. The purpose was to show that separate but equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola. The new ones, with their year of founding, are:
Gibbs Junior College (1957)Roosevelt Junior College (1958)Volusia County Junior College (1958)Hampton Junior College (1958)Rosenwald Junior College (1958)Suwannee River Junior College (1959)Carver Junior College (1960)Collier-Blocker Junior College (1960)Lincoln Junior College (1960)Johnson Junior College (1960)Jackson Junior College (1961)The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and often the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the previously all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception.
Since 1965The Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any historically black college or university that was established before 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded (or opened their doors to African Americans) after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and Brown v. Board of Education (1954) rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court (the court decisions which outlawed racial segregation of public education facilities) and the Higher Education Act of 1965.Texas Southern University, an HBCU founded in 1927In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HBCUs. His executive order manifested the White House Initiative on historically black colleges and universities (WHIHBCU), which is a federally funded program that operates within the U.S. Department of Education. In 1989, George H. W. Bush continued to adopt Carter's pioneering spirit through signing Executive Order 12677, which created the presidential advisory board on HBCUs, to counsel the government and the secretary on the future development of these organizations.
Starting in 2001, directors of libraries of several HBCUs began discussions about ways to pool their resources and work collaboratively. In 2003, this partnership was formalized as the HBCU Library Alliance, "a consortium that supports the collaboration of information professionals dedicated to providing an array of resources designed to strengthen historically black colleges and Universities and their constituents."
In 2015, the Bipartisan Congressional Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Caucus was established by U.S. Representatives Alma S. Adams and Bradley Byrne. The purpose of the caucus is to serve as an advocate for HBCUs on Capitol Hill. As of September 2017, there are 62 elected politicians who are members of the caucus.
Every year, the U.S. Department of Education deems one week in the Fall as "National HBCU Week". During this week, several conferences and events are held in Washington, D.C. centered on discussing and celebrating HBCUs as well as acknowledging select scholars and alumni from the HBCU community.
Current statusIn 2015, the share of black students attending HBCUs had dropped to 8.5% of the total amount of black students enrolled in degree granting institutions nationwide. This figure is a decline from the 13% of black students that enrolled in an HBCU in the year 2000 and the 17% that enrolled in 1980. This is a result of desegregation, rising incomes and increased access to financial aid which has resulted in more college options for black students in the 21st century.
The percentages of bachelor's and master's degrees awarded to black students by HBCUs has decreased over time. HBCUs awarded 35% of the bachelor's degrees and 21% of the master's degrees blacks earned in 1976–77, compared with 14 and 6% respectively, of bachelor's and master's degrees blacks earned in 2014–15. Additionally, the percentage of black doctor's degree recipients who received their degrees from HBCUs was lower in 2014–15 (12%) than in 1976–77 (14%).
The number of total students enrolled at an HBCU rose by 32% between 1976 and 2015, from 223,000 to 293,000. In comparison, total enrollment in degree-granting institutions nationwide increased by 81%, from 11 million to 20 million, during the same period.
Although HBCUs were originally founded to educate black students, diversity has increased over time. In 2015, students who were either white, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, or Native American made up 22% of total enrollment at HBCUs, compared with 15% in 1976.
In 2007, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund published a study of minority recruiting practices by Fortune 400 companies and by government agencies that found that 13% of minority college graduates were recruited from HBCUs while 87% of minority college students were recruited from non-HBCU institutions.
In 2006, the National Center for Education Statistics released a study showing that HBCUs had a $10.2 billion positive impact on the nation's economy with 35% coming from the multiplier effect.
Racial diversity post-2000Following the enactment of Civil Rights laws in the 1960s, all educational institutions in the United States that receive federal funding have undertaken affirmative action to increase their racial diversity.[dubious – discuss] Some historically black colleges and universities now have non-black majorities, including West Virginia State University and Bluefield State College, whose student bodies have had large white majorities since the mid-1960s.
As HBCUs work harder to maintain enrollment levels and because of increased racial harmony and the low cost of tuition in the 21st century, the percentage of non–African American enrollment has risen. The following table highlights HBCUs with high non–African American enrollments:
Racial Diversity at HBCUs School year 2016-2017College name State PercentageAfricanAmerican non-AfricanAmericanBluefield State College West Virginia 8.41 91.59West Virginia State University West Virginia 7.58 92.42Kentucky State University Kentucky 46.3 53.7Delaware State University Delaware 64.17 35.83Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) Pennsylvania 83.89 16.11University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia 59 41Elizabeth City State University North Carolina 75.86 24.14Fayetteville State University North Carolina 60 40Winston Salem State University North Carolina 70.76 29.24Xavier University of Louisiana Louisiana 69.94 30.06North Carolina A&T State University North Carolina 80 20Other HBCUs with relatively high non–African American student populations
The following list illustrates the percentage of white student populations currently attending historically black colleges and universities according to statistical profiles compiled by the U.S. News and World Report Best Colleges 2011 edition: Langston University 12%; Shaw University 12%; Tennessee State University 12%; University of Maryland Eastern Shore 12%; North Carolina Central University 10%. The U.S. News and World Report's statistical profiles indicate that several other HBCUs have relatively significant percentages of non–African American student populations consisting of Asian, Hispanic, international and white American students.
Special academic programsHBCU libraries have formed the HBCU Library Alliance. That alliance together with Cornell University have a joint program to promote the digitization of HBCU collections. The project is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Additionally, an increasing number of historically black colleges and universities are offering online education programs. As of November 23, 2010, 19 historically black colleges and universities offer online degree programs. Much of the growth in these programs is driven by partnerships with online educational entrepreneurs like Ezell Brown.
Intercollegiate sportsNCAA Division I has two historically black athletic conferences: Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference and Southwestern Athletic Conference. The top football teams from the conferences have played each other in postseason bowl games: Pelican Bowl (1970s), Heritage Bowl (1990s) and Celebration Bowl (2010s). These conferences are home to all Division I HBCUs except for Hampton University and Tennessee State University. Tennessee State has been a member of the Ohio Valley Conference since 1986, while Hampton left the MEAC in 2018 for the Big South Conference.
The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference are part of the NCAA Division II, whereas the Gulf Coast Athletic Conference is part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division I.
See also: List of black college football classics and Black college football national championshipNotable alumniSee also the "Notable alumni" sections of each institution's articleHBCUs have a rich legacy of matriculating many African-American leaders in the fields of business, law, science, education, military service, entertainment, art, and sports. This list of alumni includes people such as Martin Luther King Jr., who began his studies at Morehouse College, following in the footsteps of his father, Martin Luther King, Sr.. Oprah Winfrey attended Tennessee State University to pursue a broadcasting career. W. E. B. Du Bois, relying on money donated by neighbors, attended Fisk University, from 1885 to 1888. After Dubois earned his doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Clark Atlanta University, between 1897 and 1910. Althea Gibson entered Florida A&M University on a full athletic scholarship. Michael Strahan played one season of high school football, which was enough for him to get a scholarship offer from Texas Southern University. Thurgood Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in classes with the best students. He later went on to graduate from Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania and Howard University School of Law. In 1933, he graduated first in his law class at Howard. Roscoe Lee Browne also attended Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania, where he graduated with a bachelor's degree, in 1946. Browne also occasionally returned to Lincoln, between 1946–52, to teach English, French and comparative literature. Spike Lee enrolled in Morehouse College, where he made his first student film, Last Hustle in Brooklyn. He took film courses at Clark Atlanta University and graduated with a BA in mass communication from Morehouse. Kamala Harris, the first black senator from California, received her bachelor's degree from Howard University. Rod Paige earned a bachelor's degree from Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi. Anika Noni Rose attended Florida A&M University where she earned a bachelor's degree in theater. The Tuskegee Airmen were educated at Tuskegee University. Douglas Wilder received his bachelor's degree from Virginia Union University and his law degree from Howard University School of Law. Astronaut Dr. Ronald McNair graduated from North Carolina A&T State University. NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson along with first African American on a Fortune 500 Company General Motors Board, and Leon H. Sullivan, developer of the Sullivan Principles used to end apartheid in South Africa, attended West Virginia State College (now West Virginia State University). Ruth Simmons is a Dillard University graduate that became the first black president of an Ivy League institution (Brown University).
Nikki Giovanni, poet (Fisk University)Claude Mckay, poet (Tuskegee University)W. E. B. Du Bois, sociologist (Fisk University)Michael Strahan, athlete (Texas Southern University)Kamala Harris, U.S. Senator (Howard University)James Clyburn, Congress (South Carolina State University)Common, musician, writer (Florida A&M University)Ralph Abernathy, civil rights activist, minister (Clark Atlanta University, Alabama State University)Marian Wright Edelman, civil rights (Spelman College)Lonnie Johnson, inventor, NASA engineer (Tuskegee University)
Katherine Johnson, NASA mathematician (West Virginia State University)Oprah Winfrey, media mogul (Tennessee State University)Spike Lee, filmmaker (Morehouse College)Martin Luther King Jr., civil rights (Morehouse College)