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#26199 - 05/25/08 04:23 AM Climate Surfings
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
The results of some fairly random web surfing:
This is mainly for Paul (right now); but contains tidbits that many may find intriguing.
...not edited....
googled: "oil drilling" "water consumption"
http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:dvIIQuJeaxEJ:epmr-2002.neu.edu.tr/sess/ss17%2520sirali.doc+%22oil+drilling%22+%22water+consumption%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us
Radioactivity: Uranium, Radium, Thorium....
U~10-7to10-6 g/l; Ra ~10-10to10-9 g/l; Th ~10-4to10-3 g/l; so, their concentration increases 8-10 times.
It is obvious that during well drilling about 20,000 tons oil-stratum water flowing on the ground faces. Significant amount of this water is being released to the environment; a little amount is retained and cleaned for re-drilling. This means that pollution of environment by radioactive elements increases remarkable and that is why radiation-ecological problem is considered as the urgent problem of radiation safety in oil production industry of Azerbaijan.

http://www.ipieca.org/activities/social/downloads/publications/water_mngt.pdf
• Water Resource Management in the Petroleum Industry • IPIECA

ENCANA SAYS HATS OFF TO SIMPLE SOLUTIONS
Guidelines in action: Best practice in action:
Operating Responsibility Sharing innovative ways of managing water
In all operations, EnCana strives to make efficient use of resources. For instance, around Medicine Hat, Canada EnCana is employing centrifuges in an ongoing effort to reduce the volume of fresh water used for an oil well. In 2004 EnCana drilled 90 oil wells in the Suffield area using this technique and realized a 31,000 m3 reduction in water consumption.
...
The system was designed with a series of dividers so that the used drilling fluid moves from one cell to the next to slowly settle out the solids leaving clear water in the last cell.
This clear water is then transported to drilling operations for reuse. This method of recycling reduced the amount of fresh water used for a shallow gas well by 35% for a total 20,000 m3 reduction in 2004.
...
If you’re the largest user of drinking water in an extremely arid region and you’re also on the edge of a popular fishing and recreation area, you face a double challenge – fresh water restrictions and low tolerance for wastewater emissions.
Kwinana Refinery – built on the sensitive Cockburn Sound in Western Australia – tackled both issues in 1997 with a three-pronged strategy. To minimise water use and to re-use it where possible; to use lower quality ground water where suitable for industrial processes; and to eliminate all process wastewater discharges into the Sound.
By 2004 the new approach was delivering. The refinery used 40% less fresh water and 70% less drinking water and reduced wastewater flows by 40%. It wasn’t just the environment that benefited - the refinery’s water management strategy is saving over US $1 million a year.
...
Unlike the salty water produced from most Central Valley oil fields, water from Kern River is fresh, making it ideal for local growers. About half the 40 million gallons of water produced from the oil field each day is supplied to local farmers via pipeline or canal and their local water authorities.
The remaining 20 million gallons per day are used by ChevronTexaco in its operations – injected as steam to coax more oil from the field, or used for field maintenance projects.
ChevronTexaco treats and monitors water before it leaves the oil field to ensure it is suitable for agricultural use. Water passes through specialized equipment that removes all but trace amounts of oil and solids.
...
ExxonMobil aims to conduct business in a way that’s compatible with the balanced environmental and economic needs of the communities in which it operates. This means using alternative sources of water (saline groundwater, produced water, etc.), rather than freshwater whenever economically feasible. It also
means recycling the majority of produced water in waterflood projects, and using contaminated water for waterflood injection, rather than injecting it into disposal wells.
As part of its drive to reduce freshwater use, ExxonMobil used produced water from the Husky Ram River Wastewater Pond to plug and abandon two gas wells in the Foothills rather than using fresh water from the nearby Clearwater River. Measures to protect surface and groundwater quality include berms for many
new leases – these allow surface runoff water to be collected and tested before release. Water quality in discharge and in groundwater wells is also carefully measured, and ExxonMobil annually completes a due diligence groundwater monitoring programme at all facilities to ensure the protection of surrounding groundwater resources.
...
The Karachaganak Field is one of the world’s largest, with initial exploration and production placing considerable demands on the local public water supply. Additional capacity to treat wastewater was needed, as was improved storage of run-off to reduce the chances of contaminating nearby groundwater.
The Field wanted to develop measures that would prevent wastewater being discharged into local water sources and provide for water reuse.
Initial analysis showed that the local rivers and aquifers formed an effective but fragile ecosystem, with little water to spare for the demands of the field. A new pumping station was therefore built to bring water in from the Konchubai Gulley – and now over 150,000m3 a year no longer needs to be taken from the public supply. Water treatment and water disposal facilities were also upgraded, with wastewater now used for dust control and fire fighting. The extent and complexity of the new water management programme shows just how seriously KPO takes its responsibilities to the environment and the local community.
...
Imperial Oil’s Cold Lake facility in Canada is one of the largest oil sands operations in the world. Recovering bitumen from oil sands takes a lot of water – it is used to create the steam that heats the bitumen to the point where it may be recovered. Wherever possible, Imperial always seeks to reuse as much of this injected water as possible – currently recycling around 95%. Imperial was also the first operation in the area to use brackish water from deep saline aquifers, so reducing its demand on local fresh water resources.
Although bitumen production has climbed steadily since commercial operation began in 1985, fresh water use over the period has actually declined. This is thanks to Imperial’s “water management hierarchy” and efficient use of scarce water resources at Cold Lake. Some fresh water is still required, and this is drawn either from Cold Lake or, when monitoring shows the lake level is low, from alternative groundwater sources.
As operations continue to expand at Cold Lake, water management programmes will intensify too. Plans including an expansion of the brackish water system, and a treated water transfer line to enable greater use of recycled water across the operation result in no appreciable increase in fresh water use.
...
TOTAL’s Research Department is hard at work seeing whether some of the water produced in its operations can be used for irrigation, and so contribute to sustainable development in arid regions, by augmenting local water reources.
TOTAL’s researchers have planted a series of greenhouse crops, and are experimenting by irrigating them with produced water which has low levels of salt. Before the produced water arrives at the crops it has been filtered several times through artificial wetland biofilters (made up of reedbeds and halophytic plants growing on sand and gravel layers). These have been proven to remove most of the hydrocarbons from produced
water – and once the water is free of hydrocarbons, the focus of the experiment moves to seeing how well the plants can tolerate its salinity. Early results suggest that cotton can thrive in a low saline environment, whereas hemp is not so well adapted.
Now that promising results have been obtained in the greenhouse, TOTAL plan to scale up its de-oiling operations to the field. TOTAL also plans further studies of the salinity tolerance of other commercial crops, in order to develop a range of plants that can be grown in these conditions.
...
0-0
http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:UtnX6NDvXDQJ:www.envsec.org/docs/envsec_ashgabat_meeting_notes_2007_final.doc+%22oil+drilling%22+%22water+consumption%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=us
A contribution from KAZAKHSTAN was delivered by Mr. S. Ahmetov. He outlined and discussed the following issues: 18 September 2007, Ashgabat
Brief overview of Caspian provinces: Atyrau and Mangystau
Atmospheric and water pollution by the energy sector and industries, including flooded oil wells and spills (mostly at province level)
Soil contamination by oil drilling/processing residues (mostly in Mangystau province)
Radioactive waste, especially Koshkar-Ata
Threats to marine biodiversity (sturgeon and seals dies-offs, invasive species)
Coastal development issues (fluctuating sea levels, desertification, military and U-sites, Tukhlaya Balka waste pond)
Drinking water shortage and poor quality, health concerns
Nature conservation efforts (remediation of oil spills and soil restoration, automatic stations for environmental monitoring and storm predictions, monitoring of sturgeons, constructing a new fish plant, mapping of protected areas in the Northern Caspian Sea, strengthening of environmental legislation)
...
Specialization of local economy (oil, chemicals) and loss of traditional community lifestyle
Dependency of livelihoods on sea resources and lack of opportunities for alternative income
Asymmetric environment and security issues in Turkmenistan (marine bioresources) and Kazakhstan (energy development and industrial pollution)
Restoration of natural breeding grounds for fish resources, introduction of environmentally sustainable aquaculture, and increasing marine protected area network
...
0-0
http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:tO1d8zpUWuQJ:www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/energy/pdf/04-CrudeOil.pdf+%22oil+drilling%22+%22water+consumption%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=28&gl=us
Crude oil production and refining also can resultin some water consumption, requiring up to 2,500 gallons per Btu of energy produced, depending onproduction methods. (per Btu?)
THE ENERGY REPORT •MAY 2008 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
0-0
http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2006/05/ebb_flow_antarctic_subglacial_plumbing_system.html
“Ultra-precise measurements were taken using radars on the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite to examine in detail small changes in the surface of some of the oldest, thickest ice in Antarctica. The satellite found synchronous changes in the surface height separated by 290 kilometres [sic.].”
The scientists argue that the only possible explanation of these changes is that a large flow of water must have occurred beneath the ice from one subglacial lake into several others. The finding re-invigorates old speculations that Lake Vostok, which contains 5,400 cubic kilometers of water — “equivalent to London’s water consumption over 5,000 years — may have generated huge floods that could reach the coast.
The latest research raises the prospect that the same thing could happen again, though any discharge would probably take place over a period of months and would change sea level by less than a centimeter.
...
Why is this significant? Let’s backtrack. The subglacial lakes of Antarctica are regarded as "time capsules" of the period when the continent began to freeze over. Years ago, researchers found unexpected evidence of a great lake of liquid water in the bedrock deep below 30 million years’ of ice at the Russian Vostok research station, the most isolated manned research outpost on Earth. Lake Vostok is the largest of more than 70 subglacial lakes in Antarctica. Since subglacial lakes in Antarctica were first identified in the 1960s, more than 150 have been discovered; though it is thought thousands may exist, as much of the bed of Antarctica remains un-surveyed.

0-0
http://dieoff.org/page136.htm
Along with land and energy supplies, we take water supplies for granted and often forget that all vegetation requires and transpires massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about 7,000 kg/ha of grain will take up and transpire about 4.2 million liters/ha of water during just one growing season (Leyton, 1983). To supply this much water to the crop, not only must 10 million liters (1,000 mm) of rain fall per hectare, but it must be evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season.

Of the total water currently used in the United States, 81% is used in agriculture while the remainder is needed for industry and for public use (USWRC, 1979). In the future, the rate of U.S. water consumption is projected to rise both because of population growth and because of greater per capita use (USWRC, 1979; CEQ, 1983). The rapid increase in water use already is stressing both our surface and groundwater resources. Currently, groundwater overdraft is 25% higher than its replenishment rate (USWRC, 1979) with the result that our mammoth groundwater aquifers are being mined at an alarming rate. In addition, both surface and groundwater pollution have become a serious problem in the United States, and concern about the future availability of pure water is justified (CEQ, 1980).

0-0
The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 57, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 657-664 (article consists of 8 pages)
Chemical Bird Repellents: Possible Use in Cyanide Ponds, by Larry Clark and Pankaj S. Shah © 1993 Allen Press.
Abstract
Regulatory agencies are pressuring the mining industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of dump leachate pond water containing cyanide. Using European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as an avian model, we tested the effectiveness of 5 chemical bird repellents at reducing consumption of pond water containing cyanide. The repellents, which were previously shown to be good bird repellents, were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone (2A45DAP), methyl anthranilate (MA), 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT), and veratryl amine (VA). Despite the high pH (10.6) and presence of chelating metals, conditions which we hypothesized might destroy the activity of repellents, each of the additives reduced pond water intake relative to controls for up to 5 weeks. The rank order (from best to worst) of repellents was: OAP, 2A45DAP, VA, MA, and 4KBT, although only OAP and 4KBT differed at the P 0.05 level. These candidate repellents hold promise as a strategy to reduce bird losses at cyanide ponds and should be tested in the field.
0-0
http://info.lanic.utexas.edu/project/castro/db/1968/19680420.html
-DATE-19680420-YEAR-1968-DOCUMENT_TYPE-SPEECH-AUTHOR-
Fidel CASTRO-HEADLINE-COMMEMORATES GIRON VICTORY-PLACE-PLAYA GIRON
-SOURCE-DOMESTIC RADIO AND TV-REPORT_NBR-
0-0
http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm?kaid=116&subid=155&contentid=3426
U.S. Senate | Testimony | April 3, 2001/National Energy Policy Regarding Development of Domestic Oil and Gas Resources/ Testimony before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources/ By David J. Hayes
[David J. Hayes. is the former Deputy Secretary of the Department of the Interior. He is currently a partner at the Washington D.C. law firm of Latham & Watkins.] /......... Endnotes:
1. In previous testimony before this Committee, on April 5, 2000, I outlined the reasons why it is appropriate to continue to honor the long-standing restriction on exploration and production activities in the Arctic Refuge. The area proposed for drilling is the coastal plain that has been called the "biological heart" of the Refuge because it is the primary calving grounds for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. Unlike the Prudhoe Bay area, the coastal plain narrows significantly in the Arctic Refuge, inviting a direct conflict between the untouched wilderness and proposed oil and gas drilling, pipeline infrastructure, and related industrial activities. In addition, because it appears that oil and gas reserves in the Arctic Refuge are spread out in several pools, rather than in one large formation like Prudhoe Bay, additional "footprints" and pipeline connections may be required to develop oil and gas resources in the area. Finally, water resources are much more limited in the coastal plain area of the Arctic Refuge, as compared with the Prudhoe Bay region. Substantial water consumption is required for oil and gas activities; utilizing the limited available water supplies would likely negatively impact the existing ecosystem. (The construction of ice roads requires approximately 1.35 million gallons of water per mile and 30,000 gallons of water per day is necessary to support a drilling rig. Exploratory wells require approximately 15 million gallons of water per well.)
0-0
http://waterbrief.businessroundtable.org...24-be2caf32bbf0
· Chevron, El Segundo, California, refinery now takes 8 million gallons per day of reclaimed municipal wastewater – with 4 million gallons going to cooling tower makeup water, and 4 million gallons a day to boiler feed water. Reclaimed water now accounts for some 80 percent of the overall water consumption at the refinery. (IPIECA, 2005)
· Chevron, Richmond, California, refinery currently uses 3 million gallons per day of reclaimed water in its cooling towers. The refinery also is exploring the possibility of using another 3 million gallons a day as boiler feedwater, which would see its overall consumption of reclaimed water account for more than 50 percent of daily usage. (IPIECA, 2005)
· Chevron, California: In an award-winning water conservation and reuse program, Chevron is helping supply its neighbors in the Central Valley with supplemental irrigation water. The water is a by-product of oil drilling operations in the giant Kern River oil field in the San Joaquin Valley, surrounded by 45,000 acres of grape, citrus, and almond farms along the Central Valley. About half the 40 million gallons of water produced from the oil field each day is supplied to local farmers via pipeline or canal and local water authorities. The remaining 20 million gallons per day are used by Chevron in its operations for steamflood. Chevron treats and monitors water before it leaves the oil field to ensure it is suitable for agricultural use. Water passes through specialized equipment that removes all but trace amounts of oil and solids. The entire operation is approved and administered by the Regional Water Quality Control Board through a federal pollution discharge permit. In 1996 Chevron and the Cawelo Water District received an Award for Distinguished Service in Environmental Planning from the State Water Resources Control Board. (IPIECA, 2005)
....
Where Is Water Critical to the Petroleum Industry Business Value Chain and What Is Its Water Intensity?
Description of Value Chain and Water Uses, Wastewater Discharges
Major Purpose for Water Use: Large amounts of water are used for oil production through water and steam flooding of reservoirs, removing heat from energy-intensive processes, chemical reactions, and facilities wash down.
Types of Water Use: Processes require consumptive water use from cooling tower evaporation, return-flow use from steam condensate and cooling tower blow down, and process wastewater discharge.
Challenges Regarding Water Use: There is an extreme use of cooling water and steam. Process water requires treatment prior to discharge or reuse.
How Challenges Are Best Met: Fresh water consumption can be reduced through recovery and treatment of boiler and cooling tower blow down, reuse of process water for other processes and reclamation and use of produced water in oil field operations. (Source: Byers, et al., 2002)
...
http://waterbrief.businessroundtable.org/News/
http://waterbrief.businessroundtable.org/Default.aspx
....
0-0
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/CCL-405-p164.html
United States Patent 5018576
Abstract:A method is provided for in situ decontamination of contaminated subsurface area by injection of steam into injection wells and withdrawing liquids and vapors from extraction wells under subatmospheric pressure whereby steam is passed through the contaminated area in an essentially horizontal direction. After a substantial portion of the contamination has been removed in this manner, the injection of steam is ceased, but the extraction at subatmospheric pressure is continued, to volatilize and remove the residual water and contaminants trapped in the pores of the soil. The steam injection may be periodically resumed to reheat the area and to replenish the water in the pores.
United States Patent 5017289
Abstract:The present invention is a process for in situ biodegradation of spilled hydrocarbons. The process involves drawing oxygen into a hydrocarbon contaminated zone. A borehole is drilled into the contaminated zone and gas is evacuated at high rates out of the borehole to thereby draw oxygen from the earth's surface and through the contaminated zone. Surprisingly, the carbon dioxide concentration in the evacuated gas remains high even at the high flow rates. The rate of gas evacuation in the present process is maintained sufficiently high so that the hydrocarbon biodegradation rate is within at least 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation within the zone. The process can be applied to both porous and nonporous soils having relatively low water and gas permeability.
0-0
http://www.upi.com/International_Securit...worrisome/5920/
Analysis: Energy's water demands worrisome [April 24, 2008]
While the renewable front-runners align with environmental goals, the last two spots may seem troublesome. Fossil fuel thermoelectric plants use an average of 1,100 gallons of water for every British thermal unit of energy produced, but nuclear power plants use more than double that amount at 2,400 gallons. As the most widespread carbon-neutral power source today, this could present a problem if water becomes seriously limited.
But the study needs to be put in context before judgments about nuclear are passed, said Tony Pietrangelo, vice president of regulatory affairs for the Nuclear Energy Institute, a trade organization for the industry.

"Power production is not a significant consumer of water, especially compared to agriculture," Pietrangelo told UPI.
In fact, the power sector only accounts for 3 percent of daily energy consumption in the United States, while agriculture gobbles up about 81 percent, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. So although power production uses quite a bit of water, it consumes very little. Given this low number, greater weight should be placed on carbon emissions than on water usage, Pietrangelo said.
"In the overall scheme of things, 3 percent is a small fraction," he said. "But, from the carbon standpoint, CO2 emissions (from power generation) can be a major contributor to greenhouse gas levels."
For many, though, water remains a serious concern, including Tamim Younos, a research professor at Virginia Tech and co-author of the study.
"Ten to 15 years down the road, if we keep doing what we're doing (with water and energy), it will not be sustainable," Younos said.

Hahahaha. Oh, ...never mind. blush
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

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Of Interest?
#26306 - 05/29/08 08:51 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Surfings searching for IR spectra of atmospheric nitrogen gas.
relating to the post:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26307#Post26307
===
The spectrum of molecular nitrogen
Alf Lofthus
Institute of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Paul H. Krupenie
Optical Physics Division, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 20234

This is a critical review and compilation of the observed and predicted spectroscopic data on the molecule N2 and its ions N2 – , N2 + , N2 2 + , and the molecule N3. Each electronic band system is discussed in detail, and tables of band origins and heads are given. In addition to the gas phase electronic, electron and Raman spectra, there are also examined the spectra of condensed molecular nitrogen as well as the pressure- and field-induced infrared and microwave absorption. Dissociation energy of N2, predissociations, and perturbations are discussed. Potential energy curves are given, as well as radiative lifetimes, f-values, and Franck-Condon integrals. Molecular constants are listed for the known electronic states. Electronic structure and theoretical calculations are reviewed.
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data -- January 1977 -- Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 113-307
~pay site- frown

renewamerica.us
Nitrogen cycle: 78% of the air consists of nitrogen. Bacteria fixate nitrogen gas from the air and form nitrogen compounds. Tiny insects consume the bacteria, and these in turn are eaten by larger animals and birds that digest the nitrogen compounds and use it in organic tissues. Animal feces and the decay of dead animals goes through a process of putrefaction in which ammonia is produced. Ammonia, which has a strong odor, releases some nitrogen into the air and returns some nitrogen into the soil. Plants use nitrites in the soil as a nutrient. Dead plants putrefy, produce ammonia and release nitrogen to the air and the soil. Atmospheric nitrogen is an inert, colorless, odorless gas, and has no known influence on the greenhouse effect.

Carbon dioxide cycle: Plants consume carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere in the process of photosynthesis. Carbon is removed from the CO2 and is processed into plant fibre. When a tree is burned, the charred wood and ashes consist mostly of carbon. Animals eat plants and integrate some of the carbon into their bodies. Life on earth is carbon-based, and the source of that carbon is carbon dioxide in the air. CO2 in the air is replenished by the exhalations of animals as they breath, by plants as they release gases, by forest fires that release CO2 along with carbon ash in smoke, and by the fumes from the rotting of dead plants. Volcanic eruptions and industrial processes also add CO2 to the air. Atmospheric carbon dioxide seems to have increased during the last century from some combination of volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and industrial processes. The relative importance of these three as causes of increased CO2 is not clear. Whether increases in CO2 in the air boost the yield of farm plants is a topic of study and debate. Like nitrogen and oxygen, CO2 is a colorless, odorless gas.

Although neither nitrogen or oxygen has an influence on the greenhouse effect, for some reason CO2 is assumed by environmentalists to influence the greenhouse effect so as to cause global warming. We are all waiting for an explanation of how CO2 differs from nitrogen and oxygen in its influence on the greenhouse effect. Until such explanation is forthcoming, it seems reasonable to suspect that the theorists are failing to differentiate between wholesome CO2 and poisonous CO1 (carbon monoxide) and other toxic gases that accompany CO2 in industrial pollution. Why are the global warming theorists singling out a wholesome gas that is necessary for life on earth as the culprit of the impending disasters they are predicting?

Glass is a crystalline frozen liquid much like ice, except glass melts at a vastly higher temperature than ice. Glass refracts light, and light shining through glass objects can produce tiny rainbow images. Like glass, both water and ice refract light, resulting in rainbows or rainbow images. Clouds can refract light and produce rainbows because clouds consist of water droplets. Rainbows are more visible and spectacular just after a rainfall when the clouds begin to clear and sunbeams pierce the air when it is still filled with tiny water droplets. Since water droplets in clouds refract light in a manner similar to greenhouse glass, cloud cover as a metaphor for a greenhouse is logically valid.

Conclusion
The burden of proof lies with those who claim that CO2 gas has a greenhouse effect, because they have presented no understandable mechanism or process that explains how CO2 gas in the atmosphere increases heat on earth. The greenhouse metaphor that is successful for water droplets in clouds appears to be a failure when applied to CO2 gas. If we receive evasions instead of answers and explanations from scientists on this crucial question, we have a right to conclude that global warming theory does not make sense, and we can consign it to the accumulating heap of junk science, along with the discarded theory of global cooling of thirty years ago.

http://www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:Nitrogen_Molecule_VdW_png
The strong bond makes it chemically stable and non-reactive in most circumstances. Nitrogen's simple structure is unable to absorb either visible or infrared light. As a result, nitrogen is not a greenhouse gas.

http://www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:Atmospheric_Transmission_png
[img]http://www.globalwarmingart.com/images/thumb/7/7c/Atmospheric_Transmission.png/495px-[/img]

http://www.spectralcalc.com/spectralcalc.php
GREAT LINKS

http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/Spectrpy/spectro.htm#contnt


SEARCHED: "N-N vibrational"
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob...8dd8cfe1bc22a3a
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169433299005942
Alkyldiazenato ligands in complexes display a broad range of ν(NN) vibrational energies that fall between 1950 and 1450 cm−1

http://www.springerlink.com/content/th438t145185u202/
A two dimensional linear model has been developed representing the rate constant in terms of a convolution of two generalized line shape functions, which enabled us to study the distribution of vibrational energy among the diatomic N2 molecules resulting from the thermal decomposition of N2O. Some predictions concerning the determination of single level decay probabilities and vibrational distribution of the molecular products are presented.

http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v83/i9/p1814_1
link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.1814
experiments show that N-N vibrational energy is. more efficient than translational energy in promoting the. dissociation rate. Hence the N ...

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/109617624/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
doi.wiley.com/10.1002/prep.19810060105
the ranges of O2 and N2 translation velocities in sea-level air,. the 0-0 and N-N vibrational velocities in sea-level air, and. the nominal C-H, N-H, and ...
abstr.: An analogy can be drawn between the sonic barrier in transonic flight, the thermal barrier in supersonic or hypersonic flight, and the limiting of the detonation process in high explosives.


http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:FYRpUrRpluoJ:www.jlab.org/~abdellah/thesis_report_new.doc+%22N-N+vibrational%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=23&gl=us
www.jlab.org/~abdellah/thesis_report_new.doc
The N-N vibrational frequencies are significantly smaller than in the free nitrogen molecule, 2359 cm-1, suggesting a large perturbation by the alkali atom. ...

In fact, most of the excited states have stable potential well representing the excited complexes (or exciplexes). The spectroscopic data for the 1 2Π state and the 1 2B1 state are reported in Table 1. The N-N vibrational frequencies are significantly smaller than in the free nitrogen molecule, 2359 cm-1, suggesting a large perturbation by the alkali atom. This frequency shift is larger for the linear case with respect to the C2v case. This is in agreement with the bond strength: the linear complex is indeed much strongly bonded than the C2v isomer.

...another couple of hours of my life I'll never get back....
smile


Edited by samwik (05/29/08 09:38 PM)
Edit Reason: add crossref.
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

Top
#26349 - 06/01/08 04:28 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
This post:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26336#Post26336

...inspired a bit of interest in the physics of energy absorption and emission by CO2....

These links are not meant to be explored neccessarily, but to show the level of authority that the link provides; and besides, just the hints of what exists out there should be enough to explain....
[SO also, that means I'm not gonna fix "uncopiable" links]

I did notice that the Fourier Transform Spectra are used for the kind of high resolution spectroscopy needed to detects precise electronic effects (transitions).

THE LAST LINK is worth following as it is an academic site and also a public access type thing that contains lots of other relevant links.

So, here we go....

"4.3 Μm CO2 emission spectra in a subsonic jet"
Authors: Bakhir, L. P.; Zhdanovich, O. B.; Matveev, V. S.
Publication: Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp.1135-1140 Publication Date: 11/1987 Origin: SPRINGER
Abstract Copyright: (c) 1987: Plenum Publishing Corporation
DOI: 10.1007/BF00659811

http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1963SvA.....7..267P/0000271.000.html

triplet states, OII, CII, CO+, CO2+, Franck-Condon Principle, Angstrom and triplet band systems of the CO molecule, Asundi bands, Wigner Rule, Balmer Series lines, P1 and P2 bands of O2+ and OII.
In the CO2 emission spectrum the most intense bands are those of the Fox, Daffendak, and Barker system [22], which are probably emitted by the excited CO2+ molecules.
CO2 emission spectra also displays the triplet and Angstrom band systems of the CO molecule.
CII and OII lines are also present in the CO2 spectrum, along with the [c-t] system of the CO+.

The excitation of the upper states, from the ground state molecule by proton impact is forbidden on the grounds of spin conservation (Wigner's Rule); but not forbidden by impacts of hydrogen or electrons.
Transition from the ground state to upper levels takes place without appreciable change in the internuclear distance, i.e., in agreement with the Franck-Condon principle.

http://www.adsabs.harvard.edu/

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972PhDT........66P
High-Resolution Emission-Spectrum of Carbon-Dioxide and Carbon-Monoxide Near 4.5 Microns.
Thesis (PH.D.)--THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY, 1972.Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 33-10, Section: B, page: 4949.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob...3e7b9421a2ae5a5
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, Volume 190, Issue 1, July 1998, Pages 1-6: doi:10.1006/jmsp.1998.7534
CO2Emission in the 4-μm Region The (21^1^1)3--> (21^1^0)3 Transition Revisited
From spectra recorded at a resolution of 0.020 cm−1of the flame CH4+ O2at low pressure, six new vibrational transitions in Δv3= 1 with 2v1+v2= 5 had been recently identified [D. Baillyet al., J. Mol. Spectrosc.182, 10–17 (1996)] based on the HITRAN 92 predictions. New calculations have shown good consistency with our assignments except for one transition, namely, (21`1`1)3--> (21`1`0)3 for which discrepancies (reaching 0.2 cm−1) were found. It has been possible to resolve this issue using new emission spectra of CO2, vibrationally excited by active nitrogen and recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer at a resolution of 6.3 × 10−3cm−1in the 4–5 μm spectral region.
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022285298975348

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/00224073/1998/00000059/00000003/art00121
CO2 line mixing in MIPAS limb emission spectra and its influence on retrieval of atmospheric parameters
Authors: Funke B.1; Stiller G.P.; Clarmann T.v.; Echle G.; Fischer H.
Source: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Volume 59, Number 3, 5 March 1998 , pp. 215-230(16) Publisher: Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/S0022-4073(97)00121-0

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/citation/107/2767/48
The Infrared Emission Spectra of CO2 and H2O Molecules
Science 9 January 1948: Vol. 107. no. 2767, p. 48 \ DOI: 10.1126/science.107.2767.48

The Vibration-Rotation Emission Spectrum of Free BeH2
...The IR emission spectra contain numerous...and molecular emission lines, as well...features from CO2 and H2O (emission spectra contain numerous...and molecular emission lines, as well...features from CO2 and H2O....
Science 23 August 2002: Vol. 297. no. 5585, pp. 1323 - 1324 \ DOI: 10.1126/science.1074580

The 15-26 Micron Sky Emission Spectrum at....
Citation
H. J. Bolle, "The 15-26 µ Sky Emission Spectrum at Jungfraujoch (3570 m)," Appl. Opt. 2, 571-580 (1963)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-2-6-571
...under different climatic conditions. In order to be comparable with respect to carbon dioxide emission, the S. Agata zenith spectrum would correspond to a ...
www.opticsinfobase.org/viewmedia.cfm?id=13099&seq=0

JSTOR: The Emission Spectrum of the Night Airglow from 2 to 4 Mm. by H. P. Gush
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 264, No. 1150, A Discussion on Infrared Astronomy (Apr. 24, 1969), pp. 161-161
The infrared spectrum of the airglow in the region 2 to 4 μ m has been measured with a two-beam interferometer carried to high altitude by a balloon. The Δ v = 1 sequence of OH bands is in evidence as well as an emission band of CO2. The emission spectrum of the airglow between 2 and 4 Mm has been observed....
links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0080-4614(19690424)264%3A1150%3C161%3ATESOTN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J

...and ta-daaa....

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/529696/Physical-basis-of-the--Greenhouse-Effect--The-%E2%80%9Cwavelength-shift%E2%80%9D-
Physical basis of the Greenhouse Effect -The “wavelength shift”-

I haven't even looked at this site yet, but I think it has a lot more "authority" than most of the web site open to the public... finally!
smile
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

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#26454 - 06/08/08 05:39 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Well, docstoc was a bust....
...meanwhile....

googled: "mechanism of IR absorption"

http://elchem.kaist.ac.kr/vt/chem-ed/spec/vib/ir.htm
IR spectroscopy is the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of the absorption of mid-infrared light by a sample. Mid-infrared light (2.5 - 50 µm, 4000 - 200 cm-1) is energetic enough to excite molecular vibrations to higher energy levels. The wavelength of IR absorption bands are characteristic of specific types of chemical bonds, and IR spectroscopy finds its greatest utility for identification of organic and organometallic molecules.

The result is that there must be a change in dipole moment during the vibration for a molecule to absorb infrared radiation.

Examples of infrared active and inactive absorption bands in CO2
...

http://www.infochembio.ethz.ch/links/en/spectrosc_ir_lehr.html

http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/Spectrpy/InfraRed/infrared.htm#ir1
Photon energies associated with this part of the infrared (from 1 to 15 kcal/mole) are not large enough to excite electrons, but may induce vibrational excitation of covalently bonded atoms and groups. The covalent bonds in molecules are not rigid sticks or rods, such as found in molecular model kits, but are more like stiff springs that can be stretched and bent. The mobile nature of organic molecules was noted in the chapter concerning conformational isomers. We must now recognize that, in addition to the facile rotation of groups about single bonds, molecules experience a wide variety of vibrational motions, characteristic of their component atoms. Consequently, virtually all organic compounds will absorb infrared radiation that corresponds in energy to these vibrations. Infrared spectrometers, similar in principle to the UV-Visible spectrometer described elsewhere, permit chemists to obtain absorption spectra of compounds that are a unique reflection of their molecular structure.

Infrared spectra may be obtained from samples in all phases (liquid, solid and gaseous). Liquids are usually examined as a thin film sandwiched between two polished salt plates (note that glass absorbs infrared radiation, whereas NaCl is transparent).

A molecule composed of n-atoms has 3n degrees of freedom, six of which are translations and rotations of the molecule itself. This leaves 3n-6 degrees of vibrational freedom (3n-5 if the molecule is linear). Vibrational modes are often given descriptive names, such as stretching, bending, scissoring, rocking and twisting.

Some General Trends:
i) Stretching frequencies are higher than corresponding bending frequencies. (It is easier to bend a bond than to stretch or compress it.)
ii) Bonds to hydrogen have higher stretching frequencies than those to heavier atoms.
iii) Triple bonds have higher stretching frequencies than corresponding double bonds, which in turn have higher frequencies than single bonds. (Except for bonds to hydrogen).
...

http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/Spectrpy/spectro.htm#contnt

http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/Spectrpy/InfraRed/infrared.htm#ir1
Originally Posted By: IMHO
Very neat little "Frequency - Wavelength Converter"

...

http://www.pslc.ws/macrog/irabs.htm
O-C-O scissors 645 - 575
...

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22CO2+translational+vibrations%22&btnG=Search
TRANSLATION TO VIBRATION TRANSITION PROBABILITIES IN CO2-H2 AND ...The probability of a collision transferring energy from translation to vibration generally increases with relative speeds with which the molecules collide.
stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0635097 - 5k -

http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0635097
Abstract : The probability of a collision transferring energy from translation to vibration generally increases with relative speeds with which the molecules collide. Measured transition probabilities, therefore, generally increase with temperature. Some years ago this expected temperature effect was observed to fail for CO2-H2O, CO2-H2 and CO2-He collisions. Widom and Bauer proposed an explanation for the first of these in terms of a chemical affinity between the CO2 and H2O molecules but their theoretical results were in disagreement with the experimental values available at the time. Recent experimental results have brought measured values more nearly in line with the Widom-Bauer calculations. This paper describes similar calculations for the CO2-H2 system and reports experimental results that indicate the collision efficiency for CO2-He increases normally with temperature. (Author)

Descriptors : (*CARBON DIOXIDE, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), (*HYDROGEN, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), (*HELIUM, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), CHEMICAL BONDS, VIBRATION, TRANSFORMATIONS, PROBABILITY, TEMPERATURE
...

Characterization[ - Google Books Resultby Hellmut G. Karge - 2006
Schematic representation of the fundamental vibrations of carbon dioxide, C02; ... by translational vibrations, slowly modulating the internal vibration, ...
books.google.com/books?isbn=3540643354...
...

Translation to vibration energy transfer in O + NH3 and O + CO2 ...Translation to vibration energy transfer in O + NH3 and O + CO2 collisions. Authors: Bass, James N. Publication: Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. ...
adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974JChPh..60.2913B
...

JSTOR: Vibration-Rotation Energy Exchange in Carbon Dioxide ...Carbon dioxide is de-activated by vibration-translation (v.t.) processes as in (1) COa(0110)+M ->CO2(00 0)+M, AE = 667cm-1. (1) One would expect that ...
links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0080-4630(19760210)348%3A1652%3C57%3AVEEICD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
^^
http://www.jstor.org/pss/79116
Vibration-Rotation Energy Exchange in Carbon Dioxide-Hydrogen Mixtures. II
C. J. S. M. Simpson, P. D. Gait and J. M. Simmie
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 348, No. 1652 (Feb. 10, 1976), pp. 57-72 (article consists of 16 pages)
Abstract
Measurements have been made of vibrational relaxation in mixtures of CO2 with 10% 3He, with 10% o-D2 and with 3% HD in the temperature range 1000-360 K by means of a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. These results are compared with earlier measurements using other hydrogen isotopes and isomers. It is clear that there is vibration-rotation exchange between CO2 and n-H2, HD and D2. However, the measured temperature dependence of energy transfer probabilities do not give clear evidence for the importance of long-range interactions in the coupling reaction. It is suggested that the unusually high efficiency of HD in relaxing CO2 is due to the rate of rotational relaxation being a rate limiting process for H2 and D2 but not for HD.

Carbon dioxide is de-activated by vibration-translation (v.t.) processes as in (1)

CO2(0,1^1,0) + M --> CO2(0,1,0) + M, deltaE = 667 cm-1 (15 microns) (1)

One would expect that collision partners having similar intermolecular potentials and the same mass, such as D2 and 4He, would have comparable efficiencies for the (v.t.) process. In fact... not.... ...N2O, HD and 3He.
...

CO2 Vibrations and IR SpectrumVibrations involve movements of the atoms of a molecule which produce no net translation or rotation. These various movements are a result of the ...
www.sens.buffalo.edu/~ajs42/pchem/co2/co2.html - 4k

http://www.sens.buffalo.edu/~ajs42/pchem/co2/co2.html
Energy can be stored in molecules as translational, rotational and vibrational energy. Translation can occur in the x, y or z direction. Rotation can occur around the x, y or z axis, except for linear molecules which only have two axes or rotation. Vibrations involve movements of the atoms of a molecule which produce no net translation or rotation. These various movements are a result of the combination of the normal modes of vibration. For a triatomic molecule these normal modes are symmetric, asymmetric and bending vibrations. In symmetric vibration, the two bonds shorten and lengthen together. In asymmetric vibration, one bond shortens while the other lengthens. In bending vibration, it is the bond angle that oscillates.

http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2008/04/back-to-the-future/feed/
by Rod B.
For all practical purposes the energy from a photon at 15 microns is absorbed in a CO2 molecule’s vibration. This energy is more than twice the kinetic energy of a molecule’s translation at a nominal 300K, and does not affect the temperature, other than from the likely trivial momentum transfer just mentioned. By equipartition quantum probabilities it will strongly want to relax This relaxation is predominately transferring energy to another atmospheric molecule’s translation via collision, at other than very low pressure (density). This does raise the atmosphere’s temperature. It can, though unlikely, transfer to its own translation; however this becomes trivial since the molecule will still quickly relax its new found translation energy again via collision. It can also re-emit a photon instead, the probability of which increases as pressure decreases (among other factors). Conversely, a CO2 can sometimes collide with another molecule, pick up some kinetic energy and immediately relaxing via photon emission, transiting through vibration, and provide a net cooling of the atmosphere

Some of my calculations as a reference (and a check if anyone is so inclined):
The energy of a 15micron photon is 1.325×10^-20 joules; its momentum is 4.4×10^-29 [you’d think by now physicists would have come up with momentum units; I suggest OOMPHS!]
The kinetic energy of a CO2 molecule at 300K is 6.214×10^-21joules (3742 joules for a mol); its momentum is 3.0×10^-23; its velocity (or the average velocity for a mol) is 412.5 m/sec.
One photon’s energy going into one molecule’s translation will raise its temperature from 300K to 630K; the mol’s avg. temp would increase to 300.038K.

The standard relaxation process has a complex formula of probabilities. Of interest is the vibration to translation transfers usually require a large number of collisions before occurring. 10,000 to 100,000 is often quoted, but that is usually at high temperatures (500-1000K) where the molecule is more “comfortable” with its vibration. At atmospheric 200-300K (and normal pressure) it is less : 100-10,000 I would guess (haven’t done the cumbersome math), and more likely to make the transfer. The lower rotation energy takes 5-100 collisions to make a translation transfer and is highly likely — H2O to N2 or O2, e.g. Going the other direction — translation to vibration to emission — I would think (no math again) at low temp and pressure, e.g. stratosphere, somewhere around the 10,000-100,000 collisions range is more the normal and not as likely to occur.
...

In the lower atmosphere there are a lot of CO2 molecules being blasted with thermal radiation from the surface of the earth. They will lose their absorbed vibrational energy to the translational energy of the air molecules through collisions which preserve momentum but transfer energy.

In other words, the surface air will be radiatively heated, just as food is heated in a microwave oven.

Cheers, Alastair.
...

http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2008/04/back-to-the-future/#comment-85606
...

Measurement of the relaxation frequency of the asymmetric ...The vibrational relaxation frequency of carbon dioxide has been determined by .... depends on the temperatures of rotation, vibration and translation. ...
journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=382072
...

Phys. Rev. 134, A407 (1964): Liboff - Vibrations in a Cold ...More precisely, the emergent dispersion relation is sixth order in co2, .... and show that this leads to a translational spectrum in which many states are ...
link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRev.134.A407
...

A System of Physical Chemistry - Google Books Resultby William Cudmore McCullagh Lewis, William C ... - 1919 - Chemistry, Physical and theoretical
As this is a triatomic molecule we have three atomic vibrations to take account of ... The translational energy plus the rotational energy are in this case, ...
books.google.com/books?id=CpM6AAAAMAAJ...
...

Molecular Heat of COZ. (SO2 has the same molecular heat.)
As this is a triatomic molecule we have three atomic vibrations to
take account of. Two of these, however, may be expected to be the
same, as the oxygen atoms ate presumably linked symmetrically to the
carbon atom. The translational energy plus the rotational energy are
in this case, according to Bjerrum, represented by the term 3RT, i.e.
3/2RT translational and 3/2RT rotational. The wave-length of vibration
of each of the oxygen atoms with respect to the carbon is taken
by Bjerrum to be 5.0microns; the wave-length of vibration of the two oxygen
atoms against each other is taken to be 8.1microns. The formula employed
by Bjerrum is —
Cy(o , T ,) = 3R ~t- 2R<^[_5'o/Aj -r- R<£[_8-1/tJ. [
[quote**Sorry, the math symbols don't translate well**[/quote]
Note that the second term on the right-hand side of this expression
contains the number 2, to allow for the fact that there are two
similar kinds of atomic vibrations present. It may also be pointed
out that if CO2 were a linear molecule, O = C = O, the rotational
energy term would be RT (as in a diatomic gas). The fact that the
value 3/2RT for the rotational energy agrees with experiment (cf. the
following table) means that CO2 is not a linear molecule, its spatial *
constitution being represented approximately by C The constitution
of the CO^ molecule is considered in detail by Bjerrum ( Verh. d.D.
phys. Ges.,16, 737,
The agreement between observed and calculated values is satisfactory.
We have now to see what evidence is available from the absorption
spectrum of CO2 as regards the choice of the wave-lengths employed.
Direct measurement has shown that CO2 possesses bands at 14.7, 4.3,
and 2.7 microns. These are of the same order of magnitude as those used
in the above formula. As a matter of fact, Bjerrum has also used the
three observed values of X and has obtained values for C, which agree....

...

MEASUREMENTS OF VIBRATION-VIBRATION COUPLING IN GAS MIXTURES.The experimental observations are that the component with the faster translation-vibration (T-V) energy exchange rate (NO or CO2 in these mixtures) ...
stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0486480 - 5k -
...

Human Influence on Climate - Science a GoGo's Discussion ForumsIf you're considering kinetic energy only as "translational vibration" ... It is these vibrations that are equated with CO2's absorbed IR at 4-5 microns. ...
www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26438&fpart=1 - 102k

Originally Posted By: IMHO
uh oh, my "off the top of my head" ramblings have been made citable now. Yikes!!!

...

- lo-’“the translation-vibration energy transfer is. the rate .... Known amounts of carbon dioxide were. added to the gas flow to partially quench ...
ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/3/23236/01077326.pdf?isnumber=23236&prod=JNL&arnumber=1077326&arSt=+...
...
is this one of those ...Wacky sites?

TEMPERATURE - Access to Energy Newsletter ArchiveQuantum mechanics shows that these vibrations can only take place at discrete ... energy by increasing or decreasing their average translational velocities. ...
www.accesstoenergy.com/view/atearchive/s76a2131.htm - 22k

For a monatomic gas with only only one atom in each unit, the kinetic energy arises only from translational motion - movement of the atom from place to place in three dimensions. For a diatomic molecule, additional motions are possible. These are rotational motion - the two atoms in the molecule spin about their mutual center of mass - and vibrational motion - the two atoms vibrate back and forth by stretching and compressing the chemical bond that holds them together. (Imagine the molecule as a tiny barbell suspended by a string....

Energy transfer to atmospheric molecules occurs primarily by collisions between those molecules and the molecules of warmer bodies and by absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation.

As you read, you cannot see the tiny diatomic benefactors in the air between your eyes and this page. If they were not there, however, tirelessly bumping into your body and storing and releasing energy by increasing or decreasing their rates of translational and rotational motion, you would be immediately uncomfortable and soon dead.

In these few words, we can communicate only a little about the subject of energy storage in atmospheric gases and the measure of that storage - which is called 'temperature.' This is, however, a very beautiful and exact part of physical science. If you know a student 16 years of age or older to whom you wish to give a lasting gift, get copies of the three books listed above (as sources for Figures 1 to 3) from your library or from interlibrary loan and suggest that he study these books until he understands this subject and all of its associated mathematics.

Notice three things. First, as complicated as this simplified explanation may sound, it is child's play in comparison with understanding the atmosphere of the whole earth - - an ability the global warming industry falsely claims to have acquired. Second, Maxwell insisted that theory agree with experiment if theory were to be considered correct. Global warming calculations have a common characteristic - they do not agree with experiment because they fail to agree with measured atmospheric temperatures. These calculations are fundamentally flawed and cannot be corrected with fudge factors designed to give a politically desirable answer. Third, we are very fortunate to live at a time when the world that surrounds us has been enhanced by science. In previous times, people lived out their entire lives without ever having an opportunity to know about and enjoy the truth about the air around them.
Originally Posted By: IMHO
"...and suggest that he study these books until he understands this subject and all of its associated mathematics."
Yes! So they can come back and correct the wacky conclusions that are drawn from your beautiful, factual, and very comprehensible description of the molecular world, and its associated greenhouse/heating mechanisms.

...

Heat capacity ratios for gasesRecall that equipartition theorem says that each translational degree of ... the heat capacity of N2 and CO2 now skipping the contribution from vibration. ...
www.hi.is/~hj/EE2/Verklegt/HeatCapacityRatios/index.html - 8k -
...

Energy Citations Database (ECD) - - Document #5636609... CARBON DIOXIDE-- ATOM-MOLECULE COLLISIONS;CARBON DIOXIDE-- INFRARED SPECTRA;CARBON ... translation-vibration/rotation (T-V/R) energy exchange process. ...
www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5636609 - 12k -
...

VIBRATIONS: FROM MOLECULES TO MATERIALS MOLECULAR DANCE HEAT ...File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Heat conducted through translation; (infrared. radiation) radiated because of molecular .... carbon dioxide and water. in the presence of acid, with C ...
www.cse.iitk.ac.in/~manindra/Website/Vibrations/CALV_01_NSathyamurthy.ppt.pdf -

http://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/~manindra/Website/Vibrations/CALV_01_NSathyamurthy.ppt.pdf
...

Phys. Rev. 133, A750 (1964): Wagner - Resonance Scattering of ...The factor a(cw2) does not alter this picture, as a(co2) is not a strongly .... (b) The translational vibrations of the whole mole- cule; these are the same ...
link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRev.133.A750
...

[PDF] Fundamentals of SpectroscopyFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Example: The two in-plane stretching vibrations of carbon dioxide. ... the normal modes of vibration. These do not include translational or rotational ...
www.polysep.ucla.edu/che212/Notes/polymer%20spectroscopy.pdf - Similar pages
http://www.polysep.ucla.edu/che212/Notes/polymer%20spectroscopy.pdf
WOW! Especially if you're into Polymers!

[PDF] Infrared Spectroscopy: TheoryFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
and 3 are translational. The net number of fundamental vibrations for ... corresponding to the four fundamental vibrations. Carbon dioxide is an example of ...
orgchem.colorado.edu/hndbksupport/irtutor/IRtheory.pdf
http://orgchem.colorado.edu/hndbksupport/irtutor/IRtheory.pdf

[PDF] Could this New Technology Prolong Life on Earth? Radiolytic ...File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
can have atoms with translational (linear) as well as rotational ..... UV or laser light to the irradiation chamber, apply ultrasonic vibration to the gas ...
www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/p11.pdf

The solutions offered to solve or mitigate the effect of global warming are many,
including:
1. Conduct more studies of greenhouse effect on global environment
2. Devise more workable global plan to limit the quantity of CO2 released to the atmosphere
3. Develop new technologically driven alternatives to CO2 producing energy sources
4. Curtail cutting down forested areas around the globe
5. Conduct CO2 sequestration of CO2 in large industrial plants
6. Mitigate the greenhouse effect by modification of life forms and plant growth on the earth
and ocean
7. Develop technologies that can economically or near economically convert CO2 to an
intermediate or final useable product
Of the seven general means listed for minimizing the greenhouse effect on the earth, only
number 2 has the capability to have an immediate impact on the global environment.
...

[DOC] Vibrational spectroscopyFile Format: Microsoft Word - View as HTML
Consider now carbon dioxide, O=C=O. The 3N-5 rule for vibrational degrees of freedom predicts 4 ... molecule, total, translation, rotation, vibration ...
garfield.chem.elte.hu/Turanyi/oktatas/gyogyszeresz/optical%20spectroscopy%20(lecture%20notes)/L09Vib.doc
...

Science Magazinecontrol the translational energy precisely) with ... vibration and translation enhance the reac- .... Carbon dioxide is taken up more by the ...
www.scienceonline.org/cgi/reprint/sci;316/5832/1707.pdf

Equipartition of EnergyTranslational - movement in the x,y,z position of the molecule-always 3 and only 3 of ... Vibration has both a potential and a kinetic energy component. ...
webpages.marshall.edu/~larson/c357/Equi.htm - 4k -
...

"CO2 translational vibrations" --> end
??
Simple Mathematical Expressions for Spectral Extinction and Scattering Properties of Small Size-parameter Particles, Including Examples for Soot and TiO2
Journal of Quantum Spectroscopic Radiation Transfer ; Year: 1996 ;Volume: 55 ;Issue: 3 ; p. 391-411

...a little light reading?
smile
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

Top
#26483 - 06/09/08 02:08 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
Amaranth Rose II Offline

Superstar

Registered: 12/15/06
Posts: 843
Loc: Southeast Nebraska, USA
I don't know how you managed to do it but all your posting is unreadable due to cut off of the left hand margin by several letters on each line. Please check your settings and adjust accordingly. smile
_________________________
If you don't care for reality, just wait a while; another will be along shortly. --A Rose


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#26486 - 06/09/08 02:20 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: Amaranth Rose II]
John M Reynolds Offline
Senior Member

Registered: 08/14/06
Posts: 174
Loc: Canada
A Rose, nothing is cut off on my system. I checked 3 different browsers: IE7, Opera 9.50 Beta, and Firefox 3 RC 1.

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#26495 - 06/09/08 04:41 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: John M Reynolds]
Amaranth Rose II Offline

Superstar

Registered: 12/15/06
Posts: 843
Loc: Southeast Nebraska, USA
Well, I'm using Firefox and it cuts off the left hand side of your posting. I don't know why.
_________________________
If you don't care for reality, just wait a while; another will be along shortly. --A Rose


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#26584 - 06/12/08 04:35 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: Amaranth Rose II]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Okay now? ...check for left/right scroll-bar at bottom of screen, or just try arrow keys? Sometimes.... smile

Now... for folks who might enjoy a hint of biophysics also....

In an effort to illustrate a point, I hoped to find something... for which I'm still looking; but meanwhile, I sure love reading about this kind of stuff.
There are some hints relevant to the topic of CO2 within the following googlelicious miasma.

To make the point that the two are not proportional....
re: the topic, Human Influence on Climate:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26570#Post26570
...heat absorption by CO2: Is it logarithmic? No... or why?

googled: "extinction coefficient" "heat capacity"
...sorry the math formulas don't copy well. frown

http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/glossary/m.shtml
Glossary: M ... Just Ask Antoine! Antoine answers general chemistry questions that you forgot to ask.
Frequently Asked Questions ....Answers and hints for over 400 frequently asked questions.
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Molar Absorptivity. ( ) molar extinction coefficient; molar absorption cross section. Compare with absorptivity and absorbance....
Molar Heat Capacity....
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http://www.ebyte.it/library/educards/sidimensions/SiDimensionsByCategory.html
Quantities related only to space:
Extinction coefficient: units, (m-1); In transmition of a radiation through space.
Thermodynamic properties of matter:
Heat capacity ( kg.m2.s-2.K-1) {(J.K-1) [&#916;Heat]/[&#916;Temperature]}.
Specific heat capacity ( m2.s-2.K-1) {J.K-1.kg-1 [Heat capacity]/[Mass]}.
Molar heat capacity (kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1) {J.K-1.mol-1 [Heat capacity]/[Quantity]}.
...

http://fiesta.bren.ucsb.edu/~rhessys/appendices/appendix_b_default/appendixb.html
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Canopy light extinction coefficient; range (0-1)
Maximum stratum heat capacity - 0 will ignore heat flux model (J/m3/ºK).

[img]http://www.sciencedirect.com/cache/MiamiImageURL/B6WM2-4P1G9VK-2-8/0?wchp=dGLbVzb-zSkzV[/img]
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http://books.google.com/books?id=UM0d1orGCvAC&pg=PA116&lpg=PA116&dq=%22extinction+coefficient%22+%22heat+capacity%22&source=web&ots=KcLPW2Vlte&sig=GFAb4NP5-cn-D8vz6HUUu3M3jx0&hl=en
Greenhouse climate control.
Heat capacity of air at constant pressure: 1.164 kJ/m3/K.
Heat capacity of water: 4,180.0 kJ/m3/K.
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http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/36/3/897
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Thermal stability of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidases from the ...Protein concentration was estimated from the extinction coefficient per 1% protein .... Typical excess heat capacity curves at alkaline pH for PfPCP, ...
content.febsjournal.org/cgi/content/full/268/11/3233
...

http://www.springerprotocols.com/Full/doi/10.1385/1-59259-290-2:59?encCode=U09QOjk1OjItMDkyLTk1Mjk1LTE=&tokenString=fUt/gyj/If064wg8rxok4A==&access=denied
Methods in Molecular Biology | Volume: 208 | Pub. Date: Jul-23-2002 | Page Range: 59-88 | DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-290-2:59
Thermodynamics of PNA Interactions with DNA and RNA
By: Tommi Ratilainen, Bengt Nordén
Thermodynamic properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and their complexes with nucleic acids have attracted increasing attention. More detailed thermodynamic information is desired in order to understand and improve the behavior of PNAs in various contexts, e.g., in the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) probes and potentially for the use of PNA in therapeutics. The ultimate goal is to predict the thermodynamic properties of PNA-nucleic acid complexes of any sequence. For DNA and RNA thermodynamics, this has been achieved for relatively short (10–30 base pairs) doublestranded complexes (duplexes). These studies have yielded nearest neighbor parameters (&#916;H° and &#916;S°) for all possible combinations of base pairs in DNA and RNA (1), as well as for single mismatches in DNA
...

http://libweb.lib.buffalo.edu/sel/materials.asp?Property=Specific%20v
QC145.4 T5 V3713 1996
Title: HANDBOOK OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES, 3rd edition
Author: N.B. Vargaftik et al., Begell House, Inc., 1996
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http://209.85.173.104/search?q=cache:2vN5elQF66wJ:www.hthpweb.com/hthp/fulltext/h34/htwu309.pdf+%22extinction+coefficient%22+%22heat+capacity%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=20&gl=us
High Temperatures ^ High Pressures, 2002, volume 34, pages 65 ^ 7215 ECTP Proceedings pages 1293 ^ 1300
"Infrared optical properties of semitransparent pyrolyticboron nitride (pBN)"
Abstract. Because of the semitransparency of pBN in the infrared spectral region, the heat flux within this material does not only depend on its solid thermal conductivity, but also on its radiative properties. In order to characterise the heat transfer in pBN samples, the thermal and infrared optical properties were determined. From the measured spectral reflectance and transmittanceof the samples, the radiative heat-transfer coefficient was derived. In addition, the thermal conductivity was determined via laser-flash and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. It was found that for temperatures above 600 K the radiative transport influenced the total heat-transfer coefficient significantly.
2 Theory2.1 Conductive heat transfer in pBN: The solid thermal conductivity, ls, characterises the conductive heat transfer throughpBN. It can be calculated from measurements of the thermal diffusivity, a, the specific heat capacity cp, and the density r by:....

2.2 Radiative and conductive heat transfer in pBN Infrared transmission measurements show that pBN is semitransparent with respect to thermal radiation. A considerable fraction of photons can pass through the sample without being multiply scattered or absorbed, which causes a direct radiative exchange between the surfaces. Therefore, besides the conductive heat transfer, the radiative heat transfer and the interaction of both transfer channels have to be considered, too. This can be done by solving the equation of radiative transfer (Burger et al 1997), which describes the variation of the spectral intensity I as a function of the paths within a plane-parallel sample:dI…s†dsˆ ÀEI…s† ‡S4p…I…s, OH†p…s, O, OH† dOH‡ AIb…s† ,(2)where E is the extinction coefficient, E ˆ A ‡ S; A is the absorption coefficient, S is thescattering coefficient, p(O, OH) is a phase function for the radiation that is coming from the solid angle O and is scattered into the solid angle OH, and Ib is the blackbody intensity. Equation (2) can be written for the one-dimensional case and simplified for isotropic scattering (p 1):mdI…x, m)dxˆ ÀEI…x, m† ‡S2…I…x, mH† dmH‡An2sT4…x†p,(3)where m is the directional cosine, m ˆ cos y, y is the scattering angle, x is the path parallel to the radiation propagation, x ˆ sm, n is the refractive index of the material, and s is the Stefan ^ Boltzmann constant.The first term on the right-hand side of equation (3) describes the exponential decrease of I caused by scattering and absorption events. The second and third terms characterise the increase of I due to isotropic scattering and re-emission, respectively. The transformation of the solution of equation (3) to anisotropic scattering can be made via a scaling concept (McKellar and Box 1981).The coupling between radiative and conductive flux is introduced by the third term and the conservation of energy (Fricke et al 1990):
ddx…qs‡ qr† ˆ 0 ,(4)where qs is the heat flux caused by solid conduction and qr is the heat flux caused by radiative conduction (Siegel and Howell 1981). We have: qsˆ ÀlsdTdx, qrˆ 2p…I…x, mH†mHdmH.(5)To solve these equations a three-flux approximation can be used (Kaganer 1969).For this approximation the integral in equation (3) is transformed into a sum over a few intensities. For the three-flux approximation, three discrete directions are considered(figure 1). The direction cosines of these directions are determined from the weight factors of the intensities in the sum (Kaganer 1969):

For small optical thicknesses and for emissivities of the surroundings above 0.5, thefollowing equation for the heat transfer coefficient k is a useful approximation:k ˆ1D163n2sT3r43D‡ E‡ lsHfdIge ˆ1D163n2sT3rEeff‡ ksˆ kr‡ ks.(8)Here the calculated `radiative thermal conductivity', lrˆ krD (Siegel and Howell 1981),is not a material constant, as the effective extinction coefficient, Eeffˆ [4a(3D)] ‡ E,depends on the sample thickness D. It is straightforward to define spectral values inequation (8) for the heat transfer coefficient, kL, if the extinction coefficient ELand therefractive index nLdepend on wavelength L.In order to obtain the total heat transfer coefficient, k, as a function of temperature,we have to integrate the spectral heat transfer coefficient, kL, over the spectrum with theRosseland function, qML b(T )aqMb(T ), as weight factor (Fricke et al 1990):

...where ML b(T ) and Mb(T ) are the spectral emissive power and the total emissive poweremitted by a black body at temperature T, respectively. By multiplying the total heattransfer coefficient k by the thickness D, finally an effective total thermal (apparent)conductivity can be obtained.When using equation (9) we assume that the extinction coefficient does not varywith temperature. This is a realistic assumption for ceramic materials (Manara 1997).

...2.3 Radiative transport in scattering and absorbing mediaThe discussion above deals with hot samples. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient kL according to equation (8) in addition to the solid thermal conductivity ls and the thickness D, the spectral extinction coefficient EL is needed. In order to determine the extinction coefficient EL, measurements of the spectral transmission and reflection of a cold sampleare performed. In the case of a cold sample the re-emission term in equation (3) vanishesand there is no interaction of radiation with other heat transfer modes. The part of the incoming radiation flux F which reaches the point t within the sample is described by an additional source term, J (Manara et al 1999):

The radiation in the forward direction, I1, at the first surface (t ˆ 0) is equal to the part of the radiation in the backward direction which is reflected back into the sample(in the forward direction). The radiation in the backward direction, IÀ1, at the secondsurface (t ˆ t0) is equal to the part of the radiation in the forward direction which is reflected back into the sample (in the backward direction). Riis the mean internal reflectance, which as a function of the index of refraction n can be calculated to a good approximation from (Manara et al 1999):
...where F is the incoming radiation flux. The three-flux solution offers a relationship between the directional ^ hemispherical transmittance, Tdh, and reflectance, Rdh, obtained from experiment on the one hand and the extinction coefficient E and the albedo o0 on the other hand. The latter two values characterise the radiative transport within a medium. For o01, we obtain a relationship between the optical thickness t0 and the directional ^ hemispherical transmittance T....

3.3 Determination of extinction and albedoThe spectral extinction coefficient EL and the spectral albedo o0 L can be derived from the spectral directional ^ hemispherical transmittance Tdh and reflectance Rdh by fitting them to three-flux calculations. Tdh and Rdh were measured with an integrating sphere at room temperature in the wavelength range from 0.25mm to 18 mm (Mehling et al 1995;Burger et al 1998). Figure 3. Solid thermal conductivity ls as a function of the temperature T, derived from the thermal diffusivity and the specific heat capacity.
...the influence of radiation transport onthe thermal conductivity can be neglected in this temperature range. For higher temperatures a difference between the values is clearly visible; radiative transport has a noticeable influence on the thermal conductivity. At Trˆ 1700 K about one third of the total heat transfer coefficient may be attributed to radiation.The total heat transfer coefficients k calculated for the two spectral effective extinction coefficients are very close, which means that the spectral extinction coefficient above 3.5 mm does not influence the heat transfer coefficient k significantly. For comparison, the heat transfer coefficient of an optically thick sample is also shown, which yields a radiation contribution almost twice as high as in the optically thin sample.
5 Conclusions: The infrared optical properties have a critical influence on the heat transfer through semitransparent samples like the pBN crucibles used for compound-semiconductor single-crystal growth from the melt. The crystal growth process takes place at high temperatures, for which the radiative heat transfer is of the same order of magnitude as the solid heat transfer. It has been shown that the calculated radiative heat transfer for an optically thick sample leads to an over-estimation of the radiative contribution. Here, an approximate equation of the radiative and conductive heat transfer was used. In a further step a more detailed analysis, including the relevant boundary conditions, will be performed. Acknowledgements. We are indebted to....

Figure 8. Heat transfer coefficient k as a function of the average temperature Tr within the sample. k is calculated from EL, ELYeffY1, and ELYeffY2, respectively. For comparison the solid heat transfer coefficient ks is also shown. For temperatures above 600 K in particular, radiative transportinfluences the heat transfer coefficient significantly. Infrared optical properties of semitransparent pBN.
7115 ECTP Proceedings page 1299
...

http://www.proteinscience.org/cgi/content/full/10/7/1343
Protein Science (2001), 10:1343-1352.
"Heat capacity changes upon burial of polar and nonpolar groups in proteins"
....However, the substitutions of aliphatic side chains (Val or Leu) with a polar residue (Asn) lead to a significant (> 30%) decrease in the heat capacity change upon unfolding. The decrease in heat capacity changes does not appear to be the result of significant structural perturbations as seen from the HSQC spectra of the variants. The substitution of a buried polar residue (Gln41) to a nonpolar residue (Leu or Val) leads to a significant (> 25%) increase in heat capacity change upon unfolding. These results indicate that indeed the heat capacity change of burial of polar and nonpolar groups has an opposite sign. However, the observed changes in Cp are several times larger than those predicted, based on the changes in water accessible surface area upon substitution.
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http://www.npolar.no/transeff/Transport/Ice/AARI_chapter7.pdf
Chapter VII. Parametrization of the radiation processes in the ice cover model: (B.V. Ivanov & O.M. Andreev)
....where kI , ks- extinction coefficients of short-wave solar radiation in ice and snow accordingly.
...These equations include the thermophysical parameters of snow and sea ice (heat conductivity &#955;, heat capacity c, density &#961;) as the coefficients. To calculate the heat capacity, heat conductivity and density of sea ice, the
parameterizations proposed in publications (Nazintsev Yu.L., et.al., 1988; Doronin Yu.P. & D.E. Heisin, 1975; Ebert E., Curry I., 1993; Maykut G. A., Untersteiner N, 1971) were used. To calculate heat conductivity and heat capacity of snow, the expressions proposed in publication of Ebert E. & Curry I. (1993) were used.
To define the vertical turbulence flows of heat and moisture, the integral aerodynamic formulas with heat exchange coefficients depending on atmosphere stratification in ice surface layer (Ebert E., Curry I., 1993) were used.
Long-wave net radiation was defined by the method of König-Landlo & Augstein (Makshtas A.P. et. al., 1999).
...Extinction coefficient of solar radiation for ice ( I k ) was assumed to be equal to 1.5 m-1 (Maykut G. A., Untersteiner N., 1971; Doronin Yu.P., 1969), that for snow ( s k ) was selected in a range from 7 m-1 up to 20 m-1 (J-G. Winter, et.al., 1999; S. Gerland et.al., 1999).
...Figure 4 represents the calculation results for ice cover in Kandalakshsky Bay, there with, snow cover melting was calculated by equation (8). The maximum difference in calculated ice thickness also was observed for situations 2 and 3 as for NP-13. At the same time the analysis of temperature profiles in snow showed up small differences of absolute value (not more than some tenths of a degree) for considered situations. These differences are explained by changes of extinction coefficient for snow in the mentioned above range. But the coefficient changes do not make influence on melting speed.
...References: Doronin Yu.P. Thermal interaction between atmosphere and hydrosphere in the Arctic.
Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1969, p. 229
Physical and optical properties of snow covering Arctic tundra on Svalbard // J. Hydrol. Process., 1999, Vol.13.- P.2331-2343.
Sensitivity of thermodynamic model of sea ice to the parameterization of short- and long-wave radiation. Trudy AANII, 1992, v. 430, pp. 116-137
Thermophysical featires of sea ice. Leningrad, Ed. LGU, 1988, p. 260
Parameterization of the shortwave flux over high albedo surface as a function
cloud thickness and surface albedo.- Q.J.R. Met. Soc., 1984, Vol.110.- P.747-764. [Shine K. P.]
...Fig.1: Distribution of temperature in the ice cover on NP-13, calculated by model (solid line)
and measured (dashed line) at autumn-winter period. ...at spring-summer period. ?!!!
***The process of snow and ice cover melting in Kandalaksha Bay.
1- Digestion of incoming solar radiation by surface (70%) and penetration into the ice interior (30%).
2- Digestion of 70% incoming solar radiation by surface.
3- Digestion of 100% incoming solar radiation by surface.
t- conditional time from the moment of the beginning of ice forming. ...Figure 4.
...

http://209.85.141.104/search?q=cache:kC8pWBBcysoJ:www.sci.ui.ac.ir/chem/download/Research%2520Week%2520Template.doc+%22extinction+coefficient%22+%22heat+capacity%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=30&gl=us
Abstract— The effect of temperature (20-40&#9702;C) on the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a cationic surfactant was studied at physiological conditions (50 mM HEPES buffer, pH 7.4 and 160 mM NaCl) using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC measurements indicated that the small endothermic changes associated with CPC demicellization were not temperature dependent. In contrast, the relativity large enthalpy changes associated with binding of CPC to HSA were exothermic and temperature independent at lower concentration (below 0.022 mM) of CPC and endothermic and highly temperature dependent at higher concentration of CPC. The value of heat capacity changes were calculated at any specified values of CPC concentration by plotting enthalpy changes versus temperature. The results represent the temperature independency of heat capacity change at entire range of CPC concentration. Both enthalpograms and heat capacity curves represent a two steps mechanism for HSA unfolding due to its interaction with CPC. The effect of CPC binding on HSA intrinsic fluorescence was also examined. Analysis of fluorescence emission spectra confirms the ITC results about the biphasic mechanism of HSA unfolding by CPC.
Keywords— Human serum albumin, cetylpyridinium chloride, isothermal titration calorimetry, ionic surfactant, unfolding

In the present study, the binding of CPC to HSA at physiological conditions has been investigated by ITC at various temperatures in order to determine enthalpy and heat capacity changes. The obtained precise thermograms were interpreted in terms of molecular events such as specific and non-specific binding and unfolding process. Our conclusions have been compared and confirmed with the results of fluorescence measurements.
The HSA concentrations were determined from the optical density of appropriate solutions using the extinction coefficient at 280 nm of 35700 M-1 cm-1.
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http://209.85.173.104/search?q=cache:uLrolCtRCucJ:www.life.uiuc.edu/mcb/425/lectures/Lecture4.ppt+%22extinction+coefficient%22+%22heat+capacity%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=31&gl=us
A Short Review: Properties of proteins in solution
Intrinsic spectral properties of an amino acid side chain are barely affected by conformation of the polypeptide backbone. Empirically, the molar extinction coefficient for a polypeptide can be determined by measuring the absorbance at 280 nm: Molar extinction coefficient =# of Tyr * 1280 + # of Trp * 5690/Molecular weight

One can determine protein concentration by calculating the molar extinction coefficient and then measuring the absorbance at 280 nm. If a protein has a molar extinction coefficient of 1, then an absorbance of 1 at 280 nm corresponds to a protein concentration of 1 mg/ml.
Peptide backbone absorbs light at wavelengths less than 240 nm (maxima is at 218 nm). Chose 280 nm to measure molar extinction to avoid absorbance by the peptide backbone.
Characterization and detection of proteins
Molar extinction coefficient =# of Tyr * 1280 + # of Trp * 5690/Molecular weight
Protein conc (mg/ml) = Absorbance at 280 nm / extinction coeff * path length
...Applications:
Combinatorial chemistry: Combinatorial chemistry is used to create large populations of molecules, or libraries, whereby the generation of huge numbers of compounds increases the probability that they will find novel
compounds of significant therapeutic or commercial value.
Biochemistry:The ability to analyze complex mixtures has made electrospray and MALDI very useful for the examination of proteolytic digests, an application otherwise known as protein mass mapping.
...

Springer Protocols: Full Text: 7. Advances in the Analysis of ...Differential scanning calorimetry can measure the heat capacity of a ..... The extinction coefficient can be calculated from the number of aromatic residues ...
springerprotocols.com/Full/doi/10.1385/1-59745-189-4:105?encCode=U09QOjUwMTo0LTk4MS01NDc5NS0x&q=bWFzc...
http://www.springerprotocols.com/Full/doi/10.1385/1-59745-189-4:105?encCode=U09QOjUwMTo0LTk4MS01NDc5NS0x&q=bWFzcyUyMHNwZWN0cm9tZXRyeQ==&tokenString=zFpLwV6VTv5qId+TtND/kw==&access=denied
"Advances in the Analysis of Conformational Transitions in Peptides Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry"
Differential scanning calorimetry can measure the heat capacity of a protein/peptide solution over a range of temperatures at constant pressure, which is used to determine the enthalpy function of the system. There are several experimental factors that can have a significant impact on the determined enthalpy and subsequent derived thermodynamic parameters. These factors are discussed in terms of sample and instrument preparation, as well as data collection and analysis.
...

Hydration of the peptide backbone largely defines the ...buf are the partial molar heat capacity and the partial molar volume of the ... This extinction coefficient was used for all but G35W ubiquitin variants ...
www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/191381798v1
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ABSTRACT Thermodynamic studies on highly purified viroid preparationsas a function of temperature, the additional heat capacity of the .... calorimetric measurement and of the molar extinction coefficient. ...
nar.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/5/5/1581.pdf
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Untitled Document... coefficient of material, k is the extinction coefficient of material. ... For example, the heat conductivity and heat capacity are used in the energy ...
www.mrl.columbia.edu/ntm/level3/ch03/html/l3c03s01.html - 13k
http://www.mrl.columbia.edu/ntm/level3/ch03/html/l3c03s01.html
The first step in modelling is the discription of laser energy.
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http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/270/37/21679
ABSTRACT ...and neat REFERENCES: Free links....
The thermodynamics of the binding of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its non-functional analog, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), to cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and its T127L mutant were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in 0.2 and 0.5 M KCl phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 24 and 39 °C. Although, the binding of the first cAMP molecule to CRP is exothermic with an enthalpy change (H) of -6 kJ mol, a heat capacity change (C) of -0.300 kJ mol K, and an entropy increase (S) of 72 J mol K, the overall binding of cAMP to CRP is endothermic and positively cooperative: binding of the first cAMP molecule increases the affinity for the second one by more than an order of magnitude at 24 °C. The binding of the second cAMP molecule is accompanied by large changes of 48.1 kJ mol in H, of -1.4 kJ mol K in C, and of 255 J mol Kin S at 24 °C and 0.5 M KCl phosphate buffer. In contrast, the overall binding of cGMP to CRP is exothermic and non-cooperative with H, C, and S values close to the those values for binding of the first cAMP molecule to CRP. The point mutation, T127L, switches off the cooperativity between the cAMP ligated binding sites without affecting the binding constant of cAMP and changes the specificity of the protein so that transcription is now activated only upon cGMP binding. All the binding reactions to CRP and the mutant are mainly entropically driven at 24 °C.
...The concentrations of the CRP and the mutant were determined by UV absorption spectroscopy using an extinction coefficient of 3.5 10 cm M at 280 nm (Ghosaini et al., 1988). A DSC scan from 25 to 100 °C of the protein solutions performed with a Hart 7707 DSC heat conduction scanning microcalorimeter exhibited only one thermal transition at 65 °C for the CRP in agreement with Ghosaini et al.(1988) and one transition at the same temperature for the mutant.
...Values of the binding constants at 39.5 °C were also determined using the H and K values at 24.0 °C (T) and the C values using the van't Hoff equation.
...Each parameter for all the binding reactions in Table 1is an average determined from at least two different titration runs with different ligand and protein concentrations. Both cGMP-CRP binding reactions () are exothermic and are mainly driven by the increase in entropy. Agreement between the binding enthalpy and entropy at 0.2 and 0.5 M KCl ionic strength indicates that the binding reaction is independent of ionic strength over this range of KCl concentration. For cGMP, the binding enthalpy decreases with increase in temperature and the heat capacity changes, C and C, are -0.300 ± 0.015 kJ mol K.
...A substantial amount of energy, e.g. 48.1 kJ mol at 24 °C and 0.5 M KCl, is absorbed during the second binding reaction which is almost 10% of the energy needed to unfold the protein at its denaturation temperature (547 ± 24 kJ mol at 66.4 °C and 0.5 M KCl, Ghosaini et al.(1988)). The amount of energy absorbed is less at the lower ionic strength of 0.2 M KCl implying that electrostatics have a role in this conformational change. The entropy incease for this binding reaction is about 130 J mol K greater than for the first binding reaction as well as for cGMP binding to CRP. This increase could result from a change in the conformational contribution to the entropy. A conformational change upon binding of the second cAMP is further reflected in the large heat capacity change observed for this binding reaction of -1.47 ± 0.17 kJ mol K as compared to -0.30 kJ mol K for the first cAMP binding reaction and for both cGMP binding reactions. Differences in the heat capacity changes have been related to differences in the amount of surface area of the protein exposed to water upon unfolding (Sturtevant, 1977) and upon ligand binding (Spolar and Record, 1994). Additional evidence for a conformational change in fully cAMP saturated CRP derives from a Raman spectroscopic study (Tan et al., 1991) on CRP and cAMP ligated CRP as well as from gel chromatography (Heyduk et al., 1992). It is also apparent in the multiplicity of the thermal transitions observed in DSC scans of CRP fully saturated with cAMP (Ghosaini et al., 1989).
...Finally, all the binding reactions of the cyclic nucleotides to CRP and the mutant are mainly entropically driven at 24 °C. The cyclic nucleotides are anions at neutral pH and as charged species in water, they increase the ordered structure of water through the formation of hydration shells. The observed increase in the entropy would result from a loss of the ordered water structure of the cyclic nucleotide anion upon binding to CRP or its mutant. This is expected to be the same for both cyclic nucleotides and both proteins since differences in their structures are small.
...Figure 3: a, the heat exchanged per mole of titrant versus the ratio of the total concentration of ligand to the total concentration of protein for a calorimetric titration of 5-µl aliquots of 5.5 mM cGMP into 0.14 mM T127L in 0.5 M KCl phosphate buffer at 23.8 °C. The curve is the best least squares fit of the data to and in the text. b, the heat exchanged per mole of titrant versus the ratio of the total concentration of ligand to the total concentration of protein for a calorimetric titration of 5-µl aliquots of 6.7 mM cAMP into 0.28 mM of T127L in 0.5 M KCl phosphate buffer at 24.8 °C. The curve is the best least squares fit of the data to and in the text.
for larger image, try:
http://www.jbc.org/content/vol270/issue37/images/large/bc0081003.jpeg
...

http://www.jstor.org/pss/38848
...

http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/article.asp?doi=tf9363200547
Trans. Faraday Soc. , 1936, 32, 547 - 556, DOI: 10.1039/TF9363200547
"Properties of illuminated iodine solutions. I. Photochemical dissociation of iodine molecules in solution"
Authors: E. Rabinowitch and W. C. Wood
...

Unfolding Studies on Soybean Agglutinin and Concanavalin A ...... solution was determined from specific extinction coefficient of equation M2 .... To calculate the change in heat capacity (&#916;Cp) for the reaction, ...
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1305132
Biophys J. 2005 February; 88(2): 1300–1310.
Published online 2004 November 12. doi: 10.1529/biophysj.104.051052.
...

Large-scale expression and thermodynamic characterization of a ...In order to determine the extinction coefficient for S1S2, it was first dialyzed against ..... i.e. that the change in heat capacity is approximately zero. ...
content.febsjournal.org/cgi/content/full/267/13/4281
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/ejb/267/13
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2000.01481.x
Abstract
The ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluR) are the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. GluR agonist binding has been localized to an extracellular domain whose core is homologous to the bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBP). We have established routine, baculovirus-mediated expression of a complete ligand-binding domain construct at the 10-L scale, yielding 10–40 milligrams of purified protein. This construct contains peptides that lie outside the PBP-homologous core and that connect the domain core to the transmembrane domains of the channel and to the N-terminal ‘X’-domain. These linker peptides have been implicated in modulating channel physiology. Such extended constructs have proven difficult to express in bacteria, but the protein described here is stable and monomeric. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that glutamate binding to the domain involves a substantial heat capacity change and that at physiological temperatures, the reaction is both entropically and enthalpically favorable.
...
...

Introduction to the Electronic Properties of ... - Google Books Resultby David Jiles - 2001 - Technology & Engineering - 418 pages
... extinction coefficient = decay in light intensity/number of wavelengths, ... conductivity Dulong-Petit: relates heat capacity to the number of atoms ...
books.google.com/books?isbn=0748760423...
...

1.3.1.1.2 List of frequently used symbols and abbreviations 12 1.3 ...extinction coefficient (absorption index). J. total orbital angular momentum quantum .... coefficient of electronic heat capacity (extrapolated to T=0 K) ...
www.springerlink.com/index/N93B4JFLFFN9XF8Q.pdf
The page cannot be found HTTP 404 - File not found
....

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and ...Interestingly, NAD+ binding resulted in much wider heat capacity curves, .... using a molar extinction coefficient of 1.17×105 M&#8722;1 cm&#8722;1 (280 nm) for the ...
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167483899001326
...

[Paper] Selecting Appropriate Models of Antarctic Lake Ice DynamicsThe parameters 81 optimised were ice albedo , extinction coefficient ... ci = specific heat capacity of ice, Lf = latent heat of freezing for water. ...
www.actapress.com/PDFViewer.aspx?paperId=17336
http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx?PaperID=17336&reason=500
"Selecting Appropriate Models of Antarctic Lake Ice Dynamics" T.D. Reid and N.M.J. Crout (UK)
Abstract: From Proceeding (432) Environmental Modelling and Simulation - 2004
Model selection criteria are proposed as useful tools for assessing the optimum complexity and predictive power of a model. However there are few examples of these techniques being applied to real-data situations. In this study a number of the criteria were calculated for a complex thermodynamic model and simple empirical models of freshwater lake ice, in conjunction with data from a year-long study on Crooked Lake, Antarctica. The simple models captured the system behaviour remarkably well, although the selection criteria suggested the physics based approach was more generalizable. In addition, the criteria gave convincing evidence for ice modellers that using variable physical ice characteristics (albedo, extinction coefficient and geometric surface roughness) improves the accuracy and generalizability of a physics based ice model.
...
...

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15579621
Climate dynamics ISSN 0930-7575; 2004, vol. 22, no2-3, pp. 87-105 [19 page(s) (article)]
An annual cycle of vegetation in a GCM. Part I: implementation and impact on evaporation
International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project II dataset
...The prescribed model vegetation seasonality consists of annual cycles of a number of structural vegetation characteristics including LAI as well as canopy height, surface roughness, canopy water capacity, and canopy heat capacity, which themselves are based on empirical relationships with LAI. An annual cycle of surface albedo, which in the model is a function of soil albedo, surface soil moisture, and LAI, is also modelled and agrees reasonably with observed estimates of the surface albedo annual cycle. ....The extinction coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation, kpar, is adjusted downwards from 0.5 to 0.3, thereby enhancing the LAI-canopy conductance relationship. A canopy shading extinction coefficient, ksh, that controls what fraction of the soil surface beneath a canopy is directly exposed to the overlying atmosphere is increased from 0.5 to 1.0, which effectively reduces soil evaporation under a dense canopy. When the experiments are repeated with the adjusted parameters, the relationship between evaporation and vegetation state is strengthened and is more spatially consistent.
...

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ejb
WOW
Here is a whole lifetime of browsing....
~Later... smile

_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

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#26595 - 06/12/08 03:34 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
Amaranth Rose II Offline

Superstar

Registered: 12/15/06
Posts: 843
Loc: Southeast Nebraska, USA
Samwick,
You have produced an enormously long document which no one in their right mind would take the time to read. Also, a number of your links are either 404's or access denied. You also copy great gouts of text from the sites you have linked without giving credits. I suggest in future you might try to limit your posts to a more reasonable length and do not quote so extensively from a referenced source. If you are going to quote a source, be sure and use quotation marks to signify that you are quoting. You are likely to get SAGG in trouble over copyright laws if you continue to copy without attribution.
_________________________
If you don't care for reality, just wait a while; another will be along shortly. --A Rose


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#26599 - 06/13/08 04:18 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: Amaranth Rose II]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Sorry about the dead-ends. This was done "quick and dirty," and should be severely edited.

I'll try to curb my enthusiasm in the future;
...unless someone says they enjoy this and want more. smile
No?
.
.
.
If there is no "active" link, then it's just copied from the google search/return results page; but the address is listed.
It's all "quoted," or copied from the web, so I don't use quotation marks (unless they're also copied with the text);
but I'll try to put my comments/explanations into tags so they're clearly set apart from all of the copied text.
The local university library says this kind of copying is okay, even from pay sites; however....

I know I got carried away copying from that jbc.org site about cyclic AMP;
...but there was just so much mention of
...entropy!

Thanks,
~SA
smile
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

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#26614 - 06/14/08 03:54 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
In the post:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26570#Post26570
...JMR provides a link to a "physicist's" blog.
===

John, are you kidding?
Try googling this "physicist."

http://alanburkhart.blogspot.com/2007/04/extinction-is-only-answer.html
Consider this bit from scientist Gary Novak, who has created a wonderful website dealing with politically tainted science and its consequences:
"Laboratory measurements show that carbon dioxide absorbs to extinction at its main peak in 10 meters under atmospheric conditions. This means there is no radiation left at those frequencies after 10 meters. If then humans double their 3% input of CO2 into the atmosphere, the distance of absorption reduces to 9.7m. A reduction in distance is not an increase in temperature. Convectional currents stir the heat around removing any relevance for distance.
Scientists who promote the global warming hype try to work around this fact by claiming something different happens higher in the atmosphere, which they claim involves unsaturation. The difference due to height is that the absorption peaks get smaller and sharper, so they separate from each other. Near the earth's surface, the absorption peaks for water vapor partially overlap the absorption peaks for CO2. Supposedly, in some obfuscated way, separating the peaks creates global warming. There is no real logic to that claim. It is nothing but an attempt to salvage global warming propaganda through obfuscation of complexities. "
Originally Posted By: IMHO
A ringing endorsement from an unbiased denialist, perhaps protesting too loudly!
Not ...an "obfuscation of complexities."
Does he mean science with that phrase?

...

Drummerworld: Gary Novak: Born and raised in Chicago, Gary Novak was practically born with drum sticks in hand. Coming from parents of great musical talent, it is no wonder that Gary ...
drummerworld.com/drummers/Gary_Novak.html - 83k -
Originally Posted By: IMHO
...hmmmm. Maybe not the correct Gary Novak.... smile

...

Midweek Cuckoo: Gary Novak « moonflakeNov 10, 2006 ... I have mentioned mushroom scientists Gary Novak before, but it was prior to the inception of the Midweek Cuckoo, and I did not do him the ...
moonflake.wordpress.com/2006/11/10/midweek-cuckoogary-novak/ - 22k -
...

Gary Novak. About the Author. Independent Scientist, Mushroom ...In studying the morel mushroom I found unprecedented evolution including phenotypic variation as an adaptation mechanism.
nov55.com/abt.html - 15k -
Originally Posted By: IMHO
"...including phenotypic variation as an adaptation mechanism." ...What?

...

Science is Broken. Propaganda Replaces Rationality Based on ...The carbon dioxide debate supposedly ended when a fake majority represented by sham authority hath spoken. Propagandists. Gary Novak Independent Scientist ...
nov55.com/ - 13k
...

EARTH Sciences - by Gary Novak Ice age cycles explain climate changes when viewed from a model of oceans heating due to hot spots in the earth core. Humans cannot create global warming.
world-mysteries.com/gnovak.htm - 35k -
...

Cancer and Evolution - by Gary Novak Other Articles by Gary Novak (this site); Related Links. Cancer is caused by nanobacteria or viruses which look to the mutation rate of a particular gene to ...
world-mysteries.com/gnovak_cancer.htm - 15k -
...

Originally Posted By: JMR's link to "a physist's (Novak's) explanation"
Why is the greenhouse effect logarithmic?
Steve McIntyre at climateaudit.org is trying to locate the provenance ;-) of the logarithmic formula for the greenhouse effect. Instead of joining him, let me post my explanation why I personally think that the idealized greenhouse warming is a logarithmic function of the concentration under semi-realistic idealized assumptions....
Clearly, the law is not completely universal....
However, the asymptotic logarithmic behavior for large C is more than a convention. It can be derived as a result of an idealized calculation that is relatively realistic....
So if you combine all these things, you see that a geometric increase of the total CO2 volume - and I could have divided the e-folding into several smaller fixed percentage increases....
With the assumptions listed above, and they are kind of - although not perfectly....
Let us try to end up with the 1 °C sensitivity. First of all, as we have already suggested....
Although the derivation above is a caricature primarily designed to understand some qualitative features of the greenhouse effect and make some order-of-magnitude estimates, I am convinced that the contemporary climate models should be able to get the right results for the flow of radiation and its absorption and emission by CO2 at different altitudes (unless all of their creators are doing something really silly).
http://motls.blogspot.com/2008/01/why-is-greenhouse-effect-logarithmic.html
Well now here's another "new physics" explanation!
Does anybody understand this?
WTF is Gary talking about?
smile
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

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#26889 - 06/27/08 03:54 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Arctic Update & Other Surfings:

http://psp.tamu.edu/news-1/first-monthly-arctic-sea-ice-outlook-may-2008.html
http://www.arcus.org/search/seaiceoutlook/index.php
The intent is not to issue predictions, but rather to summarize all available information from ongoing observing and modeling efforts to provide the scientific community, stakeholders, and the public the best available information on the evolution of the arctic sea ice cover.
The SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook is implemented through close cooperation with the DAMOCLES program and other relevant national and international efforts. Sea Ice Outlook activities are supported in part through the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

http://www.arcus.org/search/seaiceoutlook/report_may.php
Of the individual responses that included quantitative outlooks, three (3) suggest a return toward the long-term trend of summer sea ice loss; six (6) anticipate the 2008 extent to be close to the 2007 record minimum; five (5) respondents suggest additional ice loss compared to the 2007 minimum. None suggested a return to the historical average (mean 1979–2000 September values) of 7.0 million square kilometers.

DISCLAIMER: This Sea Ice Outlook should not be considered as a formal forecast or prediction for arctic sea ice extent, nor is it intended as a replacement for existing efforts with operational responsibility.
-=-

http://www.nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/
June 3, 2008
Arctic sea ice still on track for extreme melt
Arctic sea ice extent has declined through the month of May as summer approaches. Daily ice extents in May continued to be below the long-term average and approached the low levels seen at this time last year. As discussed in our last posting, the spring ice cover is thin. One sign of thin and fairly weak ice is the formation of several polynyas in the ice pack.

polynya:
irregularly shaped areas of persistent open water that are sustained by winds or ocean heat; they often occur near coasts, fast ice, or ice shelves.


fast ice:
ice that is anchored to the shore or ocean bottom, typically over shallow ocean shelves at continental margins; "fast ice" is defined by the fact that it does not move with the winds or currents.

Conditions in context
Although ice extent is slightly greater than this time last year, the average decline rate through the month of May was 8,000 square kilometers per day (3,000 square miles per day) faster than last May. Ice extent as the month closed approached last May’s value.
Average Arctic Ocean surface air temperatures in May were generally higher than normal. While anomalies were modest (+1 to 3 degrees Celsius, +2 to 5 degrees Fahrenheit) over most of the region, temperatures over the Baffin Bay region were as much as 6 degrees C (11 degrees F) above normal. The atmospheric circulation in May was highly variable. The first half of the month saw strong winds blowing from east to west over the southern Beaufort Sea. This wind pattern probably contributed to polynya formation near Banks Island and along the northwestern coast of Alaska.

atmosphere connection
The more we study the Arctic's shrinking sea ice cover, the more we appreciate the key role of clouds and water vapor. Our colleague, Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University, has linked changes in the ice edge northwest of Alaska to variations in springtime cloudiness and in the water vapor content of the lower atmosphere. She has observed an increase in springtime cloud and water vapor over the last three decades that can be clearly linked to retreat of the ice edge.
What is the nature of this link? More clouds act like an umbrella, shading the sea ice surface from the sun's rays, also called solar radiation. At the same time, clouds act like a warm blanket, transferring heat in the form of long-wave radiation from the atmosphere to the ice surface. More water vapor in the atmosphere contributes to the blanket-like effect. Whether the umbrella or blanket effect dominates determines how much radiation is absorbed at the surface, which in turn influences the rate of ice melt. In spring, solar radiation is still relatively weak. Because of this, the blanketing effect of increased clouds and water vapor wins.
In the summer, the situation is reversed. Clear skies allow the strong radiation of the summer sun to reach the surface and melt sea ice. Anticyclone patterns set up these clear summer conditions. We will be watching closely for the possible onset of these conditions in coming months.

The relative lack of thick, resilient multi-year ice in the Arctic discussed in earlier postings finds further support in the latest analysis from the United States National Ice Center (NIC). NIC uses a variety of satellite imagery, expert analysis, and other information to provide information on the amount and quality of sea ice for ships operating in the Arctic. NIC scientist Todd Arbetter suggests that much of the first-year ice is likely to melt by the end of summer, saying that despite the total ice extent appearing normal, the relative amount of multi-year ice going into this summer is very low when compared to climatological averages. NIC has found that the relative fraction of multi-year ice in the central Arctic has plummeted since the mid-1990s, creating an Arctic prone to increased melt in summer. Arbetter said, “This may be a primary reason for record summertime minimums in recent years.”

As mentioned, the thin ice that covers much of the Arctic Ocean is showing signs of early breakup, with large polynyas off the coast of Alaska, the Canadian Archipelago, and Baffin Bay. Coastal polynyas are not unusual, at this time of year, but the polynyas we are currently seeing appear larger and more numerous than usual. This is partly because of the thinner, weaker ice cover.
Thorsten Markus at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has noted the size of the North Water polynya at the northern end of Baffin Bay, which typically forms in May. The polynya is much larger than normal, possibly nearing its largest area on record.
Inuit report that sea ice is starting to break up near Baffin Bay much earlier than normal this year. They have observed wide cracks in the ice already forming, according to NSIDC scientist Shari Gearheard, who lives and works in the Baffin Island hamlet of Clyde River.
Polynyas are a source of heat for the atmosphere in spring; in summer, however, they are large absorbers of solar energy. Resultant warm ocean surface waters then eat away at the ice edge, accelerating melt.

NSIDC scientists provide Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis, with partial support from NASA.

-0-0-

http://psp.tamu.edu/news-1/first-monthly-arctic-sea-ice-outlook-may-2008.html
The Arctic and Antarctic: Two Faces of Climate Change
===

http://www.agu.org/contents/sc/ViewCollection.do?collectionCode=ARCTUNDRA1
Biocomplexity of Arctic Tundra Ecosystems
Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 113, NO. G3, 2008
Originally Posted By: IMHO
**Free Abstracts!!**
i.e.,
...Significant changes in ecosystem CO2 exchange and vegetation characteristics were observed following multiple additions of nitrogen (N) and factorial additions of N and phosphorus (P) to prostrate dwarf-shrub, herb tundra in Northwest Greenland.
===

http://www.ipy.org/index.php?/ipy/detail/ipy_report_may_2008/
...plans, upcoming events....
===

http://environment.newscientist.com/arti...ible-depth.html

Arctic volcanoes exploded at 'impossible' depth
18:00 25 June 2008
NewScientist.com news service, Jeff Hecht

The deep ocean continues to surprise – it appears that volcanoes on the Arctic seabed have blown up at depths where such events were thought impossible.
In 1999, the largest-ever swarm of quakes on a mid-ocean ridge was recorded, on the Gakkel Ridge in the east Arctic basin.
To find out what caused it, Robert Reves-Sohn of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, US, and colleagues peeked at the ridge with robot subs and various sensors used to search under pack ice.
They found shattered rock spread over 10 square kilometres, suggesting a series of volcanic explosions.

Journal reference: Nature (DOI: 10.1038/nature07075)

Originally Posted By: IMHO
Volcanic explosions!?? ....Not Just Global Warming?? smile

....

http://arcticportal.org/uploads/M0/Kp/M0KpEKAcxV_YmzP-tXgmVQ/A_Global_Warning-CBS-News.pdf
A Global Warning: Aug. 6, 2006; (CBS) [This story originally aired on Feb. 19, 2006.]
...

http://www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/09/28/4180/
Published on Friday, September 28, 2007 by Reuters
Arctic Thaw May Be at ‘Tipping Point’ by Alister Doyle

“I’d say we are reaching a tipping point or are past it for the ice. This is a strong indication that there is an amplifying mechanism here,” said Paal Prestrud of the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo.
“But that’s more or less speculation. There isn’t scientific documentation other than the observations,” he said.
Reuters will host a summit of leading newsmakers on Oct 1-3 to review the state of the environment. Speakers will include Rajendra Pachauri, the head of the U.N. Climate Panel and Michael Morris, chief executive of American Electric Power.
“All models seem to underestimate the speed at which the ice is melting,” said Anders Levermann, a Potsdam professor.
“I do not believe that this is alarmist… not all tipping points are irreversible,” he said. And societies can weigh up remote risks, such as planes crashing or nuclear meltdowns.

Hansen said he is seeking more study of causes of the melt, widely blamed on greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels but perhaps slightly stoked by soot from forest fires or industries in Russia and China. Ice darkened by soot melts faster.
“It is a very good lesson, because the ice sheets (on Greenland and Antarctica) have their own tipping points, somewhat harder to get started but far more dangerous for humanity around the globe,” he said.
===

http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/prometheus/archives/climate_change/001363update_on_falsificat.html
Update on Falsification of Climate Predictions March 15, 2008; Posted to Author:
Pielke Jr., R.

"For what it’s worth: I believe AGW is real, based on physical arguments and longer term trends, I suspect we will discover that GCM’s are currently unable to predict shifts in the PDO. The result is the uncertainty intervals on IPCC projections for the short term trend were much too small."
"None of this discussion means that the basic conclusion that greenhouse gases affect the climate system is wrong, or that action to mitigate emissions do not make sense. What it does mean is that we should be concerned about the overselling of climate predictions and the corresponding risks to public credibility and advocacy built upon these predictions."

http://rankexploits.com/musings/
Originally Posted By: IMHO
So that's where this all came from; Thanks Lucia....
...in reference to:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26384#Post26384
IPCC 2001 model comparisons
...I think....

...and this also (barely) relates to:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=25271#Post25271
Cause and Effect

...and others ...to be mentioned....

smile Cheers,
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

Top
#27013 - 07/08/08 03:52 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Again, this isn't meant to prove anything; but just to show what is going on in the field.
Sorry some of the math/chemistry symbols didn't copy well....

googled: "ice core data" reliability

Reconstruction of atmospheric CO from ice-core data and the deep ...records to ice-core data, by multiple regression, for the. purpose of backward extrapolation. ..... providing a sense of the reliability of sea-level recon- ...
www.springerlink.com/index/BNWHVW81PQKD5DXL.pdf

http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514281853/isbn9514281853.pdf
Kekonen, Teija, Environmental information from the Svalbard ice core for the past
800 years
Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O.Box 3000, FI-90014
University of Oulu, Finland
Acta Univ. Oul. A 469, 2006
Oulu, Finland
Abstract
Major water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO4 2-, CH3SO3-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+) were determined and the results interpreted from a 121 m long ice core drilled at the summit of the Lomonosovfonna dome, Svalbard. The core covers about the past 800 years. The reliability of anion chemistry for paleoenvironmental studies, and various insoluble particles were also investigated. The ice core studied in this Thesis is the first relatively deep ice core from the central Svalbard that has been analyzed and the results interpreted and published at high resolution for all major ions.
One of the clearest features of the ion profiles is anthropogenic impact. SO4 2- and NO3- concentrations show significant increases by the mid-20th century with slight increases already at the end of the 19th century. In addition excess Cl- and NH4+ from anthropogenic sources are detected arriving after the mid-20th century. Anthropogenically derived SO4 2- and NO3- have different sources on Lomonosovfonna. NO3- is correlated with NH4+ and requires interpretation in terms of both natural and anthropogenic NH4/NO3 sources.
The ice core ionic load consists mostly of sea salt ions (Na+, Cl-, K+ and Mg2+). Water soluble Ca2+ are mostly terrestrial in origin. Ion balance together with the Na+/Cl- ratio shows considerable change about 1730 that is most probably due to Na2CO3 input to the ice cap before 1730. Marine biogenic CH3SO3- concentrations are high and stable during the Little Ice Age. CH3SO3- concentrations show a clear change in concentrations in 1920, that is the end of the Little Ice Age in Svalbard. Regardless of anthropogenic impact, marine biogenic SO4 2- is appreciable in total SO4 2- budget even in the 20th century.
The Laki volcanic eruption in Iceland in 1783 is identified in the ice core as a volcanic tephra layer and high SO4 2- concentration and acidity peaks. These show that SO4 2- arrived to the Lomonosovfonna ice cap 6–12 months later than insoluble tephra and the SO4 2- aerosol caused a drop in temperature.
The reliability of ice core ion chemistry analyses was estimated – for the first time in an ice core using two different analytical procedures on 500 adjacent samples from the same depth. Small-scale inhomogeneity in ion concentrations shows that information from ice core layers is representative of the regional environmental and suitable for paleoclimate studies.
Keywords: anions, Arctic, cations, ions, Laki, paleoclimate, particles, volcanic eruption

1.2 Ice core analyses
Ice core samples for chemical analyses are small and concentrations of chemical
components determined are generally rather low (Jauhiainen et al. 1999, Curran &
Palmer 2001). These facts require sophisticated chemical instruments that enable analyses
of low concentrations from small sample volumes. Numerous components (e.g. ions,
metals, gases, isotopes, organic compounds) can be analyzed and determined from ice
cores (e.g. Boutron et al. 1991, Anklin et al. 1995, Legrand & DeAngelis 1996, Barbante
et al. 1997, Townsend & Edwards 1998, Masclet et al. 2000, Burton et al. 2002, Lee et
al. 2002, Schuster et al. 2002).

Research on the insoluble parts of melted ice core samples has mainly
been focused on volcanic particles because of their importance for dating purposes
(Fiacco et al. 1994, Zielinski et al. 1997a). Other marine and terrestrial particles can also
provide a lot of knowledge about past climate and atmospheric composition (Zdanowicz
et al. 2000, Kohfelt & Harrison 2001).

2 Objectives of the Thesis
The main objectives of this Thesis were to determine water soluble ion concentrations
and analyze insoluble particles from the ice core, to investigate the reliability of ion
results, and to evaluate the significance of data from a climatic and environmental point
of view. The research site of this Thesis was Lomonosovfonna ice cap on Svalbard (Fig.
1), and this Thesis was based on a 121 m long ice core drilled from the highest ice field at
the summit of the Lomonosovfonna dome (78° 51' 53"N, 17° 25' 30"E, 1255 m a.s.l.) in
1997. The ice core covers approximately the past 800 years. More specifically, the main
aims were:
1) to prove that ice core ion concentrations are comparable using different ion
chromatographic methods and adjacent samples, and therefore are appropriate for
paleoclimate and environmental studies. This is the first time that duplicate chemical
analyses have done for such large number of samples. Adjacent samples from an ice core
at the same depth are generally assumed to give the same information even though the
concentrations of ions are extremely low, and the effects of snow accumulation, snow
drifting and partial melting are known to vary of over lengths comparable to the diameter
of an ice core (~10 cm).
2) to examine the origin of the ions and to assess the distribution of sources. To
interpret the past, the composition and origin of chemical impurities deposited in Arctic
snow must be known. Sources are generally marine, terrestrial, anthropogenic, biogenic
and volcanic.
3) to evaluate climatic, environmental and post-depositional changes from ice core ion
results. Different climatic periods and anthropogenic effects are sometimes possible to
detect using long term ion profiles because ions provide information on past atmospheric
composition. The LIA and the end of the LIA (in Svalbard 1920) and industrialization
should be observed in this ice core because it covers about the past 800 years.
4) to characterize the insoluble fraction of ice core samples. Svalbard ice cores have
not been subject to particle analysis before. Analyses give valuable information for
interpretation of ion results and have intrinsic value in themselves.

5.3 SO4 2- (Papers II and III)
In the Lomonosovfonna ice core SO4 2- was the next abundant ion after Na+ and Cl- and represented about 14% of total ions (Fig. 5). Sea salt and non-sea salt fractions are shown in Fig. 7 and clearly nss-SO4 2- was the dominant fraction. 74% of total SO4 2- was nss-SO4 2- and since 1950 over 88%. Only one volcanic eruption, the Laki, was easily detected (Section 5.3.1) and terrestrial SO4 2- usually was present together with Ca2+ (Section 5.6) and/or Mg2+. Therefore in the pre-anthropogenic period, most of the SO4 2- was from marine biogenic production (Section 5.4). In the 20th century CH3SO3H and SO4 2- concentrations had correlations over decadal periods (Fig. 7), such obvious co-variation indicated that biogenic SO4 2- is a major SO4 2- source even though anthropogenic inputs were already present. Models of the SO4 2- record also suggest that even in the 20th century marine biogenic sources were dominant accounting 30-55% of total SO4 2- budget.

5.7 Ion sources at different time periods (Paper VIII)
The ice core ion data can be naturally split into four groups: pre-industrial period that
was in the middle of the LIA, period immediately before the end of the LIA (before
1920), period immediately after the end of the LIA (after 1920), and period after 1950
dominated by anthropogenic input. Performing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on
each group brought out the impact of bubbly and clear ice facies (caused by changes in
seasonal melting) and the nature of relationships between ions. PCA indicated that
climate variability is more dominant in the ice core as source of ionic variations than melt
water percolation. PCA showed that Na+ and Cl- were clearly from the same source in the
pre-industrial period. In the anthropogenic period Na+ and Cl- indicated excess Cl- from
anthropogenic sources. SO4 2- and NO3- were closer associated in the anthropogenic
period than pre-industrial period and this suggested anthropogenic pollution even though
ions were not from identical sources (Section 5.5). Before and after the end of the LIA
periods clear changes concerning CH3SO3- and SO4 2- can be seen. Change was also
noticed in concentration ratios (Section 5.4).

6 Conclusions
...
Ion concentrations in ice cores are so small that, from a chemistry point of view, there
is always doubt how accurate concentrations are. Therefore the reliability of anions
concentrations is an important part of the Thesis. It was shown that there are statistically
significant differences in mean concentrations for Cl- and SO4 2- , which are however,
explainable if only 2% of the samples have large differences in concentrations over a
distance of about 10 cm. This comparison also shows that glaciological noise level is not
remarkable, and it is less than the typical accuracy of IC measurements. Despite some
differences in concentrations, long term anion profiles are almost equal and therefore
adjacent samples measured by using two different procedures are repeatable and ice core
ion results are sound for paleoclimate and environmental studies.

Selected References:

Anklin M, Barnola J-M, Schwander J, Stauffer B & Raynaud D (1995) Processes affecting the CO2
concentrations measured in Greenland ice. Tellus 47B: 461-470.

Buck C, Mayewski P, Spencer M, Whitlow S, Twickler M & Barrett D (1992) Determination of
major ions in snow and ice cores by ion chromatography. J Chrom 594: 225-228.

Fischer H, Wagenbach D & Kipfstuhl J (1998a) Sulfate and nitrate firn concentrations on
Greenland ice sheet, 2. Temporal anthropogenic deposition changes. J Geophys Res 103:
21935-21942.

Fischer H, Werner M, Wagenbach D, Schwager M, Thorsteinnson T, Wilhelms F, Kipfstuhl J &
Sommer S (1998b) Little Ice Age clearly recorded in northern Greenland ice cores. Geophys
Res Lett 25: 1749-1752.

IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The scientific basis.

IPCC (2002) The third assessment. http://www.ipcc.ch/. Intergovernmental panel on climate
change.

Isaksson E, Divine D, Kohler J, Martma T, Pohjola V, Motoyama H & Watanabe O (2005a)
Climate oscillations as recorded in Svalbard ice core &#948;18O records between AD 1200 and 1997.
Geograf Ann 87A: 203-214.

Isaksson E, Hermansson M, Hicks S, Igarashi M, Kamiyama K, Moore J, Motoyama H, Muir D,
Pohjola V, Vaikmäe R, van de Wal R & Watanabe O (2003) Ice cores from Svalbard – useful
archives of past climate and pollution history. Phys Chem Earth 28: 1217-1228.

Isaksson E, Kohler J, Pohjola V, Moore J, Igarashi M, Karlöf L, Martma T, Meijer H, Motoyama
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Isaksson E, Pohjola V, Jauhiainen T, Moore J, Pinglot J, Vaikmäe R, van de Wal R, Hagen J, Ivask
J, Karlöf L, Martma T, Meijer H, Mulvaney R, Thomassen M & van den Broeke M (2001) A
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Kreutz K, Mayewski P, Whitlow S & Twickler M (1998) Limited migration of soluble ionic
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Koerner R (1997) Some comments on climatic reconstructions from ice cores drilled in areas of
high melt. J Glaciol 43: 90-97.

Laird S, Buttry D & Sommerfeld R (1999) Nitric acid adsorption on ice: surface diffusion.
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Lee X, Qin D & Zhou H (2002) Determination of light carboxylic acids in snow and ice from
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Legrand M & DeAngelis M (1996) Light carboxylic acids in Greenland ice: A record of past forest
fires and vegetation emissions from the boreal zone. J Geophys res 101: 4129-4145.

Legrand M, Léopold A & Dominé F (1996) Acidic gases (HCl, HF, HNO3, HCOOH and
CH3COOH): a review of ice core data and some preliminary discussions on their air-snow
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219-243.

Masclet P, Hoyau V, Jafferezo J & Cachier H (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition
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Matoba S, Narita H, Motoyama H, Kamiyama K & Watanabe O (2002) Ice core chemistry of
Vestfonna Ice Cap in Svalbard, Norway. J Geophys Res 107: 4721-4727.

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46B: 304-324.

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of atmospheric response to anthropogenic sulphate and nitrate. Nature 346: 554-556.

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Zwiers F (2002) The 20-year forecast. Nature 416: 690-691.

0-0....

http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf97167/glacials.htm

Near-surface processes affecting gas exchange: West antarctic ice sheet. Mary Albert, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. This project will examine the physical processes that affect the manner in which heat, vapor, and chemical species in air are incorporated into snow and polar firn. The processes include advection, diffusion, and the effects of solar radiation penetration into the snow. An understanding of these processes is important because they control the rate at which reactive and nonreactive chemical species in the atmosphere become incorporated into the snow, firn, and polar ice and, thus, will affect interpretation of polar ice-core data. Currently, the interpretation of polar ice-core data assumes that diffusion controls the rate at which chemical species are incorporated into firn. This project will determine whether ventilation, or advection of the species by air movement in the firn, and radiation penetration processes have a significant effect. Field studies at the two west antarctic ice sheet deep-drilling sites will be conducted to determine the spatial and temporal extent for key parameters and boundary conditions needed to model the advection, conduction, and radiation transmission/absorption processes. An existing multidimensional numerical model is being expanded to simulate the processes and to serve as the basis for ongoing and future work in transport and distribution of reactive chemical species. (S-155)

... & much more....

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Review Signals of atmospheric pollution in polar snow and iceThe ice core data thus show that an increase of 25% has .... the reliability of ice core H202 data for atmospheric studies ...
journals.cambridge.org/article_S095410209000027X
.
.
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=222897

Signals of atmospheric pollution in polar snow and ice

Abstract

In their upper layers, the polar ice sheets contain a detailed record of changes in the atmosphere over the industrial period. Measurements from air bubbles in ice have shown that the CO2 content of the atmosphere has increased by 25% in the last 200 years, and that of CH4 has more than doubled. Ice core records have demonstrated a close correspondence between greenhouse gases and temperature during the last glacial cycle. Profiles of radioactive species in snow clearly document nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere, and the recent Chernobyl accident has also left a signal in Northern Hemisphere ice. Nitrate has more than doubled in Greenland snow over the industrial period, while sulphate has more than trebled. No significant trend is seen in Antarctic snow for these anions. Pb increased 100-fold until the 1970s in Greenland snow, but concentrations appear now to be declining. A small increase is also recorded in Antarctic snow. Organochlorine compounds offer great potential for pollution studies in snow. The ability to study global scale pollution in polar ice could be hampered if there is significant local pollution. In Antarctica, impact on the atmosphere from local human activities is still mainly confined to small areas near stations.

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U.S. National Ice Core LaboratoryHome site for the US National Ice Core Laboratory at the US Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado, USA.
nicl.usgs.gov/

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http://epic.awi.de/Publications/Det2001a.pdf

Recent Greenland Accumulation Estimated from Regional Climate Model Simulations
and Ice Core Analysis*

ABSTRACT
The accumulation defined as ‘‘precipitation minus evaporation’’ over Greenland has been simulated with the high-resolution limited-area regional climate model HIRHAM4 applied over an Arctic integration domain. This simulation is compared with a revised estimate of annual accumulation rate distribution over Greenland taking
into account information from a new set of ice core analyses, based on surface sample collections from the North Greenland Traverse. The region with accumulation rates below 150 mm yr21 in central-northwest Greenland is much larger than previously assumed and extends about 500 km farther to the south. It is demonstrated that good agreement between modeled and observed regional precipitation and accumulation patterns exists, particularly concerning the location and the values of very low accumulation in the middle of Greenland. The accumulation rates in the northern part of Greenland are reduced in comparison to previous estimates. These minima are connected with a prevailing blocking high over the Greenland ice sheet and katabatic wind systems preventing humidity transports to central Greenland. The model reasonably represents the synoptic situations that lead to precipitation. Maxima of precipitation and accumulation occur at the southwestern and southeastern coasts of Greenland and are connected with cyclonic activity and the main storm tracks around Greenland. The central region of the Greenland ice sheet acts as a blocking barrier on moving weather systems and prohibits cyclones moving from west to east across this region and, thus prevents moisture transports.

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http://nicl-smo.unh.edu/icwg/ICWG1988.pdf

Organization of Specialty Groups (e.g., stable isotopes in ice, gases and isotopes of gases, cosmogenic isotopes, trace metals, major anions and cations, organic compounds and other trace constituents, physical and mechanical properties, borehole studies, atmospheric studies, modeling and GISP H Site Selection Panel Meeting). Speciality Group meetings will be assigned to rooms in Science and Engineering Research Building.
...
A deep core to bedrock at/near Summit in Greenland to obtain a long paleoenvironmental record. This would be the first detailed terrestrial record covering several glacial-interglacial cycles and allow study of the three Milankovitch cycles of ~ 2 x 10^4, 4 x 10^4, and 10^5 years. To assure bedrock was reached one needs to penetrate bedrock and recover some bedrock core. It is highly desirable that the results from such a core can be compared with those from a core nearby, analyzed independently, to safeguard against analysis problems and ice flow related artifacts in the deep core record. Comparison of the two deep cores with each other and with existing intermediate and deep Greenland ice cores will indicate whether additional intermediate cores and/or cores penetrating the last glacial are needed. An array of shallow cores and snow pit studies is needed to determine spatial variability.
...
SPECIALTY GROUP REPORT: TRAPPED GAS COMPOSITION
Justification:
Analyses of air bubbles embedded in polar ice reveal the composition of the preindustrial and ancient atmospheres. So far, extensive measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and some chlorocarbons have been made on ice cores from both polar regions. The results provide a remarkable record of the magnitude and timing of
human influences on the global cycles of these gases. Except for the chlorocarbons, for which there is no evidence of any substantial pre-industrial concentrations, the other gases (CO2, CH4 and N20) started increasing only during the last 200 years with the growing population and increasing needs for energy and food. The increase of N20 probably started only a few decades ago. The record shows that C02 concentrations were about 280 ppmv 200 years ago while methane and nitrous oxide concentrations were about 700 ppbv and 285 ppbv respectively. Today there is 25% more C02, 8% more N20, and 100% more CH4 in the atmosphere.
Measurements on existing ice cores provide longer records for C02 and CH4 which show large natural variations during glacial and interglacial periods. The Bern and Grenoble groups have published data that provides a convincing case that the C02 content of the atmosphere during glacial time (~ 200 ppmv) was substantially lower than that for the interglacial time (~ 280 ppmv).
Recent experiments by the Bern and Grenoble ice core groups show that the concentration of CH4 dipped to a low of about 350 ppbv during the last ice age. Khalil and Rasmussen's (in press) data spanning the Little Ice Age between 1450 and 1750 show a proportionate decrease in methane (about 40 ± 30 ppbv/°K) and also a decrease of N20 (about 5 ± 3 ppbv/°K). These decreases are believed to be a measure of the response of emissions from the Earth's soils, oceans, and high northern wetlands to global climatic change. The character and details of the transition of the atmospheric concentrations of C02, CH4 and N20 during the last deglaciation have yet to be well documented.
Nevertheless, it is clear that concentrations of the radiatively active gases in air influence climate and are in turn influenced by climate. The large role which varying levels of radiatively active gases play in climate change emphasizes the importance of understanding the global-scale interactions between climate and the biosphere. Studies of the d13C of C02,d13C and dD of CH4, d15N of N20, d180 Of 02, and the 02:N2:Ar ratio in the trapped gas can help in achieving this understanding. The importance of studying these variables lies not in their environmental influence, but in their role as tracers of selected geochemical processes that influence global climate. d13C of C02 serves as a tracer for studying the roles of the ocean and terrestrial biosphere in changing atmospheric pCO2. d13C and dD of CH4 reflect the relative production rates by the different sources. The same is true for the d15N of N20. d180 of 02 is governed by isotope fractionation during photosynthesis, respiration, and hydrologic Processes. Hence it reflects global scale interactions between the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. The atmospheric 02 concentration (expressed as the 02/N2 or 02/Ar ratio) indicates changes in the magnitude of the reduced carbon reservoirs, as well as the metabolic C02 content of the deep sea. N2/Ar, the d15N of N2, and 3He/4He must have been constant in the ice age atmosphere, and serve as indicators of the integrity of
trapped gas samples.
In summary, studies of the composition of trapped gases in ice cores inform us directly about changes in the atmospheric concentrations of the radiatively active gases. They also reveal the composition of various tracers, which can help us unravel the nature and causes of Pleistocene climate change.
...

d13C of C02
Atmospheric C02 exchanges with the biosphere and the oceans. The size of the biosphere may vary as climatic changes, and the uptake or release of C02 by the oceans is governed by pCO2 of the ocean surface waters, which depends on a number of factors. d13C and the 14C/12C ratio of C02 can be used to learn whether atmospheric C02 concentration changes are due to biospheric or oceanic exchange. Atmospheric d13CO2 (~ -7°/oo PDB) is closer to that of the oceans (+2 °/oo) than to the more depleted biosphere (~ - 25°/oo); the radiocarbon in the biosphere and atmosphere are about equal, while the surface waters of the ocean are somewhat lower (~95%). Thus if, for example, an atmospheric increase in C02 were caused by a net flux from the biosphere, the 13C/12C
ratio would decrease, with almost no change in 14C/12C. On the other hand, if a C02 increase is the result of a predominant influx from the oceans, the 13C/12C ratio would be minimally affected and the 14C/12C ratio would decrease. The expected variations in d13C are small and thus extreme care is required in the experimental techniques.
At the proposed drilling site in Central Greenland one expects to encounter the ice conditions most favorable for obtaining a detailed C02 concentration record during glacial and interglacial times. High depth resolution measurements can be performed and compared to d180 of H20 (and particulate content, chemical species, and the
concentrations of cosmogenic radio-nuclides), in order to determine the relative timing of C02 and climate variations, and therefore the causal relationship. Ultimately the achievable resolution is determined by the inherent age difference of enclosed air and surrounding ice, which can vary with time.

The atmospheric 02 concentration, expressed as the 02/Ar ratio, is affected by the carbon cycle via photosynthesis and respiration. The processes thought to be responsible for changing atmospheric C02 levels leave different imprints on the atmosphere C02 content. The burial of organic carbon or production of terrestrial biomass raises the 02 concentration in air, erosion or destruction of biomass decreases 02. Changes in the transport of organic carbon to the deep sea have the same effect. Reactions between C02, CaC03 and oceanic HC03- can change atmospheric C02 but have no effect on the 02/Ar ratio. The measurement of the variable thus provides an important constraint for unravelling the behavior of the carbon system and understanding the causes of variations
in the atmospheric C02 content.

C. Post-Deposition Processes
A number of investigators have shown that contaminant concentrations in snow
may change with time as the snow ages, even in the absence of dry deposition. Examples
of process affecting these concentrations include snow sublimation, meltwater
percolation, and diffusion of contaminants through the snowpack. Possible research
methods to explore post-deposition changes in the Arctic include the following:
1. Measurement of contaminant concentrations in surface snow during dry periods
of varying length between storms is needed to assess sublimation. Comparing timevarying
concentrations for species with and without appreciable dry deposition may help
separate the effects of sublimation.
2. Measurement of contaminant concentrations in shallow snowpits are needed for
comparison with previous measurements of concentrations in fresh snow corresponding
to the same set of storms. This will provide an indication of changes in concentration
between the original fresh snow and the older snow in the pits.
3. Statistical analysis of concentrations in intermediate depth cores is needed for
species whose airborne concentrations and deposition rates are believed to have been
constant over the period of the cores. This may identify longer term post-deposition
changes in concentration.

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http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10136&page=25

A review of available Greenland ice-core data is given by Alley (2000). The data were collected by two international teams of investigators from multiple laboratories. The duplication shows the high reliability of the
data from the cores over the most recent 110,000 years, and the multiparameter analyses give an exceptionally clear view of the climate system.

...and see the graph at:
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10136&page=26

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http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/samson/climate_patterns/

Both methane and carbon dioxide correlate with temperature - i.e., an increase in temperature is associated with an increase in the abundance of both these two gases. It is unclear whether the gas abundance changes are a consequence of the temperature changes or vice versa.

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AAPG Studies in Geology 47: Geological Perspectives of Global ...... judge the reliability of forecasts made by global climate change models. ... Although numerous statistical analyses have been made of the ice-core data, ...
search.datapages.com/data/specpubs/study47/CH11/ch11.htm - 51k -

0-0

Atmospheric CO fluctuations during the last millennium ...evolution than suggested by ice-core data. Coupled to centennial-scale cooling .... correspondence corroborates the reliability of the older reconstructed ...
geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/reprint/33/1/33.pdf

http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/33/1/33

Geology; January 2005; v. 33; no. 1; p. 33-36; DOI: 10.1130/G20941.1

"Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles"

A stomatal frequency record based on buried Tsuga heterophylla needles reveals significant centennial-scale atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium. The record includes four CO2 minima of 260–275 ppmv (ca. A.D. 860 and A.D. 1150, and less prominently, ca. A.D. 1600 and 1800). Alternating CO2 maxima of 300–320 ppmv are present at A.D. 1000, A.D. 1300, and ca. A.D. 1700. These CO2 fluctuations parallel global terrestrial air temperature changes, as well as oceanic surface temperature fluctuations in the North Atlantic. The results obtained in this study corroborate the notion of a continuous coupling of the preindustrial atmospheric CO2 regime and climate.

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http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/mdms/cgi-bin/view.pl?pd_pkey=93419639663811

BAS MDMS Details... what processes can occur, and of testing the reliability of models, is to look into the past. ... Parent (up), Ice Core data - BAS - high level 'parent' ...
www.antarctica.ac.uk/mdms/cgi-bin/view.pl?pd_pkey=93419639663811 - 10k -

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http://www.agu.org/pubs/sample_articles/sp/2001GL013781/2001GL013781.pdf

"Our model can explain the observed lag of several thousand years of atmospheric CO2 behind temperature upon entering a stadial, given reasonable assumptions about the precipitation-weighted temperature record at Vostok."

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http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/soerpt/files_to_link/2000tecdocs/06-climate-techdoc.pdf

Methodology and Reliability: Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 1744 to 1973 were
derived from air bubbles trapped in the ice at the Siple Station, West Antarctica (75º55'S,
83º55'W). The date of air isolation can be determined by considering the age of the ice
and the process by which the air bubbles are trapped. At shallow depths, atmospheric air
still circulates through the open pores, resulting in enclosed air that is much younger than
the surrounding ice. The isolation of air in bubbles from the atmosphere occurs between
the depths of 64 and 76 metres. On the basis of porosity measurements, researchers
determined that the time lag between the mean age of the trapped gas and the surrounding
ice was 95 years and that the isolation process occurred over 22 years. Neftel et al. (1985)
concluded that the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration circa 1750 (pre-industrial)
was 280 +/- 5 parts per million by volume (ppmv); it had risen to 345 ppmv in 1984 (a
22.5% increase), essentially as a result of human influences. For a detailed account of the
methodology used for deriving the ice core data, see Neftel et al. (1985).

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http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521824095&ss=exc

Climate Change in Prehistory
The End of the Reign of Chaos

The dramatic advance with ice cores came with the publication in the early 1990s of the first results of two major international projects: the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) (Grootes et al., 1993) which successfully completed drilling a 3053-m-long ice core down to the bedrock in the Summit region of central Greenland in July 1993; and its European companion project, the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) (Greenland Ice Core Project Members, 1993), which one year earlier penetrated the ice sheet to a depth of 3029m, 30km to the east of GISP2. These cores provided a completely new picture of the chaotic climate throughout the last ice age, the turbulent changes that occurred at the end of this glacial period and the stability of the climate during the last 10kyr (a period known as the Holocene).

These chaotic changes were evident in many of the ice-core parameters, including rapid fluctuations in the snowfall from year to year and sudden changes in the amount of dust swept up from lower latitudes. The most spectacular results were obtained, however, by measuring the ratio of oxygen isotopes (oxygen-16 and -18), which provided an accurate record of regional temperature over the entire length of the ice core. The amount of the heavy kind of oxygen atoms, oxygen-18 (18O), compared with the lighter far more common isotope oxygen-16 (16O), is a measure of the temperature involved in the precipitation processes. But this is not a simple process.
...
These cores presented an entirely different picture of the climate during and following the last ice age. Added to the glacial slowness of changes that led to the building and decline of the huge ice sheets was a whole new array of dramatic changes (Fig. 1.2). While these long-term consequences remained, two exciting features emerged from the detailed record of the ice cores. First, they provided much improved evidence of the frequent fluctuations in the climate on the timescales of millennia that ranged from periods of intense cold to times of relative warmth. Second, and even more interesting, these longer-term variations were overlain with evidence of dramatic short-term fluctuations: over Greenland, annual average temperatures rose and fell by up to 10 °C in just a few years, while annual snowfall trebled or declined by a third. As the research team memorably described the patterns (Taylor et al., 1993), the climate across the North Atlantic behaved like a ‘flickering switch’.

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http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7087/full/nature04679.html

The magnitude and impact of future global warming depends on the sensitivity of the climate system to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. The commonly accepted range for the equilibrium global mean temperature change in response to a doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration1, termed climate sensitivity, is 1.5–4.5 K (ref. 2). A number of observational studies3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, however, find a substantial probability of significantly higher sensitivities, yielding upper limits on climate sensitivity of 7.7 K to above 9 K (refs 3–8). Here we demonstrate that such observational estimates of climate sensitivity can be tightened if reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperature over the past several centuries are considered. We use large-ensemble energy balance modelling and simulate the temperature response to past solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas forcing to determine which climate sensitivities yield simulations that are in agreement with proxy reconstructions. After accounting for the uncertainty in reconstructions and estimates of past external forcing, we find an independent estimate of climate sensitivity that is very similar to those from instrumental data. If the latter are combined with the result from all proxy reconstructions, then the 5–95 per cent range shrinks to 1.5–6.2 K, thus substantially reducing the probability of very high climate sensitivity.

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http://www.lyellcollection.org/
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http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112731066/abstract

Journal of Quaternary Science; Volume 10 Issue 1, Pages 77 - 82; Published Online: 26 Jul 2006
DOI: 10.1002/jqs.3390100108

Abstract
Data from the Greenland ice sheet and continental records from Europe have indicated climatic fluctuations during the last interglacial (Eemian: Oxygen Isotope Substage 5e). Similar fluctuations have not, however, been documented previously from marine environments. Here, we show the existence of two cold events during substage 5e in two marine, benthic foraminiferal, shelf records from northwest Europe and suggest that these cooling events are a result of fluctuations in the strength of the North Atlantic surface-water circulation.

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http://www.nzic.org.nz/CiNZ/articles/Mackie_71_3.pdf
Chemistry in New Zealand October 2007
"Climate Change Mythconceptions: Some Incorrect, Irrelevant
and Misleading Arguments Made by Climate Change Denialists"

Several good ice core records have been obtained from Antarctica. Two of the best long ice core records are those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) and a core taken at Vostok Station. The EPICA core goes back about 740,000 years and covers 8 ice ages (or glacial cycles) and the Vostok core goes back about 420,000 years, covering 4 glacial cycles. The Vostok core was drilled in 1996 and the EPICA core in 2004, and not all EPICA analysis is complete yet. However, there is complete temperature (from isotopes) and CO2 data (from
bubbles) available for Vostok so the discussion here uses only the Vostok measurements.

...tomorrow... Part II
smile
...maybe....

_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

Top
#27018 - 07/08/08 07:14 AM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
Amaranth Rose II Offline

Superstar

Registered: 12/15/06
Posts: 843
Loc: Southeast Nebraska, USA
Samwick:
Your first link is bad. Can you find another or fix it?

Another link (search.datapages.com/data/specpubs/study47/CH11/ch11.htm - 51k -) Leads to a sign in page of a geologically minded organization. No clues as to how the content applies to what is being discussed here.


_________________________
If you don't care for reality, just wait a while; another will be along shortly. --A Rose


Top
#27024 - 07/08/08 03:30 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: Amaranth Rose II]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Originally Posted By: Amaranth Rose II
Samwick:
Your first link is bad. Can you find another or fix it?
Another link (search.datapages.com/data/specpubs/study47/CH11/ch11.htm - 51k -) Leads to a sign in page of a geologically minded organization. No clues as to how the content applies to what is being discussed here.
...the google search returned "reliability of forecasts made by global climate change models...." Even though it's a geology site, American Assoc. of Petroleum Geolgists (I think), I thought it was on topic; and they even mention "statistical analyses... of the ice-core data...."
p.s. Amaranth Rose, Yes some links led nowhere, but I was just copying the text returned from the google search. Could we just leave it as "faltering on the surfboard" while surfing?
===



smile
Note: re: Oxygen isotopes....
Here denoted by &#948;18O, or just &#948;, which is the relative deviation of the 18O/16O ratio from the 18O/16O value of SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water).
...or sometimes d18O, instead of &#948;18O (my text editor's problem)... sorry.
===

Continuing on from yesterday....

Anklin M, Barnola J-M, Schwander J, Stauffer B & Raynaud D (1995) Processes affecting the CO2
concentrations measured in Greenland ice.
Tellus 47B: 461-470. 0280-6509 TSBMD7 issue #4
DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.47.issue4.6.x

Abstract:
Detailed CO2 measurements on ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show different mean CO2 concentrations for samples at the same gas age. The deviation between Antarctic and Greenland CO2 records raises up to 20 ppmv during the last millennium. Based on the present knowledge of the global carbon cycle we can exclude such a high mean interhemispheric difference of the CO2 concentration between high northern and southern latitudes. Diffusive mixing of the air in the firn smoothes out short term variations of the atmospheric CO2 Concentration. Nevertheless, we observe short term CO2 variations in Greenland ice in the range of 10–20 ppmv, which cannot represent atmospheric CO2 variations. Due to the low temperature at Summit, meltlayers can be excluded for most of the ice and they cannot account for the frequent anomalous short term CO2 variations and the elevated mean CO2 concentration in the Greenland ice. In this work we give some clues, that in situ production of CO2 in Greenland ice could build up excess CO2 after pore close of [sic][pore close-off?]. Possible chemical reactions are the oxidation of organic carbon and the reaction between acidity and carbonate. We conclude that the carbonate-acidity reaction is the most probable process to explain the excess CO2 in the bubbles. The reaction could take place in very small liquid-like veins in cold ice, where the mobility of impurities is higher than in the ice lattice. At present, there exists no technique to measure the carbonate concentration in the ice directly. However, a comparison of CO2 analyses performed with a dry- and a wet-extraction technique allows to estimate the carbonate content of the ice. This estimate indicates a carbonate concentration in Greenland ice of about 0.4 ± 0.2 µmol/l and a much lower concentration in Antarctic ice.

0-0

Tellus B, DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2005.00131.x
Volume 57 Issue 1, Pages 51 - 57
Published Online: 20 Jan 2005
"Supporting evidence from the EPICA Dronning Maud Land ice core for atmospheric CO2 changes during the past millennium"
Abstract
The most direct method of investigating past variations of the atmospheric CO2 concentration before 1958, when continuous direct atmospheric CO2 measurements started, is the analysis of air extracted from suitable ice cores. Here we present a new detailed CO2 record from the Dronning Maud Land (DML) ice core, drilled in the framework of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) and some new measurements on a previously drilled ice core from the South Pole. The DML CO2 record shows an increase from about 278 to 282 parts per million by volume (ppmv) between ad 1000 and ad 1200 and a fairly continuous decrease to a mean value of about 277 ppmv around ad 1700. While the new South Pole measurements agree well with DML at the minimum at ad 1700 they are on average about 2 ppmv lower during the period ad 1000–1500. Published measurements from the coastal high-accumulation site Law Dome are considered as very reliable because of the reproducibility of the measurements, high temporal resolution and an accurate time scale. Other Antarctic ice cores could not, or only partly, reproduce the pre-industrial measurements from Law Dome. A comparison of the trends of DML and Law Dome shows a general agreement. However we should be able to rule out co-variations caused by the same artefact. Two possible effects are discussed, first production of CO2 by chemical reactions and second diffusion of dissolved air through the ice matrix into the bubbles. While the first effect cannot be totally excluded, comparison of the Law Dome and DML record shows that dissolved air diffusing to bubbles cannot be responsible for the pre-industrial variation. Therefore, the new record is not a proof of the Law Dome results but the first very strong support from an ice core of the Antarctic plateau.

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Tellus B, DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1999.t01-1-00005.x
Volume 51 Issue 2, Pages 170 - 193
Published Online: 19 Sep 2002
"A 1000-year high precision record of &#948;13C in atmospheric CO2"
Abstract
We present measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in air extracted from Antarctic ice core and firn samples. The same samples were previously used by Etheridge and co-workers to construct a high precision 1000-year record of atmospheric CO2 concentration, featuring a close link between the ice and modern records and high-time resolution. Here, we start by confirming the trend in the Cape Grim in situ &#948;13C record from 1982 to 1996, and extend it back to 1978 using the Cape Grim Air Archive. The firn air &#948;13C agrees with the Cape Grim record, but only after correction for gravitational separation at depth, for diffusion effects associated with disequilibrium between the atmosphere and firm, and allowance for a latidudinal gradient in &#948;13C between Cape Grim and the Antarctic coast. Complex calibration strategies are required to cope with several additional systematic influences on the ice core &#948;13C record. Errors are assigned to each ice core value to reflect statistical and systematic biases (between ± 0.025‰ and ± 0.07‰); uncertainties (of up to ± 0.05‰) between core-versus-core, ice-versus-firn and firn-versus-troposphere are described separately. An almost continuous atmospheric history of &#948;13C over 1000 years results, exhibiting significant decadal-to-century scale variability unlike that from earlier proxy records. The decrease in &#948;13C from 1860 to 1960 involves a series of steps confirming enhanced sensitivity of &#948;13C to decadal timescale-forcing, compared to the CO2 record. Synchronous with a ''Little Ice Age'' CO2 decrease, an enhancement of &#948;13C implies a terrestrial response to cooler temperatures. Between 1200 AD and 1600 AD, the atmospheric &#948;13C appear stable.

0-0

Tellus B, DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1998.t01-2-00004.x
Volume 50 Issue 3, Pages 253 - 262
Published Online: 20 Sep 2002
"Ice core record of CO variations during the last two millennia: atmospheric implications and chemical interactions within the Greenland ice"
Abstract
In order to study in detail the pre-industrial CO level during the last two millennia and its temporal variations, several ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica were analysed. Our Antarctic CO results remain very close to those observed previously for the last 150 years and suggest that carbon monoxide concentration did not change greatly over Antarctica during the last two millennia. Between 1600 and 1800 AD, CO concentrations obtained in the Greenland ice are also very close to those already reported for the 1800–1850 AD period. In contrast, the oldest part of the Greenland CO profile exhibits high CO levels (100–180 ppbv) characterised by a strong variability. This part of the Greenland record likely does not reflect the true atmospheric CO concentrations. We discuss the possible processes which could have altered the atmospheric CO signal either before or after its trapping in the ice. The oxidation of organic material in the oldest part of the investigated Greenland ice appears as the most likely explanation. Because there are strong similarities between the Greenland CO and CO2 concentration profiles for the 1000–1600 AD period, mechanisms involved in both cases could be at least partly the same. Therefore, oxidation of organic materials is a serious candidate for in-situ CO2 production in the Greenland ice. Due to the fact that the Antarctic ice contains much less impurities and show no peculiar variability in CO concentrations, we are more confident about the atmospheric significance of our Antarctic CO concentration profile.

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===

Here is a bit more surfing: I started by looking up the first reference (from that long list in the previous post-- btw, that was only about 1/3 of the total references listed).

It was in a journal called Tellus (section B): Chemical and physical meteorology
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118533053/home
Who knew?

Here (above) are some other papers from Tellus B. As usual, I'm not trying to prove anything, except to show the extent that science goes to find those confounding factors affecting the reliability of data interpretations.

I can't wait to try Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology And Oceanography

smile

cross-ref:
This post (and the previous post) are motivated by the Topic "Human Influence on Climate," in general; and
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=27011#Post27011
...and the posts following
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=26924#Post26924


Edited by samwik (07/08/08 03:57 PM)
Edit Reason: add cross-ref.
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

Top
#27119 - 07/14/08 10:45 PM Re: Climate Surfings [Re: samwik]
samwik Offline
Megastar

Registered: 10/10/06
Posts: 1076
Loc: Colorado
Motivated by the thread:
http://www.scienceagogo.com/forum/ubbthr...=2679#Post27117
I did a little surfing.
If a link didn't work, I just copied the search result.
...and some characters don't copy well....
...and some of these are only tangentially on-topic.

googled: econometric "climate change"

http://www.cfpm.org/~scott/econometrics/index.html
Climate change policy
It is useful in understanding approaches to climate change policy analyses to distinguish between what we might call model based scenarios and model assisted scenarios. There is, however, a considerable difference between the position taken here and by Nakicenovic and Swart (2000) on the one hand and, on the other hand, the position taken by economic modellers of climate change. It will be instructive to consider the economists' approach in some detail.

Policy modelling
Societies are complex in the sense that it is not possible fully to understand any element in society in isolation from the rest and the nature of interactions within society renders accurate prediction infeasible. If evidence is needed to justify the statement that societies are complex, it is provided by the experience that forecasts of volatile social episodes are systematically wrong. Indeed, I have not been able to find an independently documented counter example to the claim that, in the long history of econometrics, there has never been a single correct econometric forecast of a turning point in any trade cycle or in any organised financial exchange.

If societies are complex in the above sense, then it cannot be a purpose of modelling to provide reliable forecasts of social or economic events. In particular, models cannot provide reliable forecasts of the consequences of any social policy measures.

The virtue of models is that they are formalisms and, as with any formalism, they are precise. Agent based models in particular require formal (hence precise) representations of what the agents perceive, the processing of those perceptions and the actions they take. If the specification and implementation of agents are readily comprehensible to stakeholders (including policy analysts), then those stakeholders will be in a position to assess whether the agent formalism is an accurate representation of their own behaviour and of their own understandings of the behaviour of other stakeholders. Moss and Edmonds (2005) have called this assessment by stakeholders micro validation.

Cross validated agent based social simulation models constitute broadly accurate and plausible as well as completely precise accounts of historically experienced social processes. ....

Economic models of climate change because the recent Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (Stern, 2006) was predicated on the presumption that economic models tell us something that is, or at least could be, true, it and criticisms of it provide a useful starting point for this discussion.

The particular class of models on which Stern relies are economic models with, in several cases, some integration with simple physical models. Stern uses these models to simulate a range of trajectories of temperature change and their economic and social impacts. These trajectories cover a range of outcomes but there is a central cluster. He interprets this distribution as a probability distribution of possible future outcomes. In so doing, he follows Chris Hope (2006) the developer of the principal model (the PAGE2002 model) used to produce the scenarios for the review. To quote Hope....

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob...e1d35d3aa7163c2
Econometric analysis of global climate change
Authors: Stern D.I.; Kaufmann R.K.; doi:10.1016/S1364-8152(98)00094-2
Source: Environmental Modelling and Software, Volume 14, Number 6, November 1999 , pp. 597-605(9)

Abstract
This paper reports on research that applies econometric time series methods to the analysis of global climate change. The aim of this research was to test hypotheses concerning the causes of the historically observed rise in global temperatures. Longer term applications include quantification of the contribution of different forcing variables to historic warming and use of the model as a module in integrated assessment. Research to date has comprised three stages. In the first stage we used the concept of Granger causality and differences between the temperature record in the northern and southern hemispheres to investigate the causes of temperature increase. In the second stage we tested various global change time series for the presence of stochastic trends. We found that most series contain a stochastic trend with the greenhouse gas series containing I(2) stochastic trends. In the third stage we developed a structural time series to investigate some of the hypotheses suggested by the earlier stages and further tested for the presence of an I(2) trend in hemispheric temperature series. We found that the two temperature series share a common I(2) stochastic trend that may have its source in radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases. There is a second non-stationary component that appears only in the northern hemisphere and appears to be related to radiative forcing due to anthropogenic sulphur emissions.

Author Keywords: global climate change; Time series analysis; Econometrics

0-0 [what the heck is I(2)?]

http://www.climatechangeeducation.org/
Climate Change Education .Org
For Teachers, Students, Kids, Families, Educators, Everyone

http://global-fever.org/index.html?gclid=CP-slqvGwJQCFR4sagod1C__TA
by William H. Calvin: (The University of Chicago Press, 2008) ISBN 0226092046 US$22.50 cloth
My Beijing lecture on our climate crisis, “The Great Use-it-or-lose-it Intelligence Test,” is now on the web. The occasion was the World Bank's CGIAR Crawford Memorial Lecture.
http://www.cgiar.org/meetings/agm07/agm07_crawford.html

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http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/metho...sed__models.pdf
Econometric models are manipulated with climate change scenarios to predict the economic costs of adaptation. They estimate structural relations between historical climate and agricultural land values under the presumption that such relations reflect a steady-state level of adaptation of regional farming systems to local climate characteristics. These relations are cross-sectional (i.e., units of observation are geographic areas) and the geographic variation in land values is assumed to be partly regulated by differences in the quality of climate inputs. Parameter estimates embed the relative efficiency of current adaptation to a range of climate conditions (cold and warm).

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http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=645061
Land-Use Change and Carbon Sinks: Econometric Estimation of the Carbon Sequestration Supply Function
Abstract:
When and if the United States chooses to implement a greenhouse gas reduction program, it will be necessary to decide whether carbon sequestration policies - such as those that promote forestation and discourage deforestation - should be part of the domestic portfolio of compliance activities. We investigate the cost of forest-based carbon sequestration. In contrast with previous approaches, we econometrically examine micro-data on revealed landowner preferences, modeling six major private land uses in a comprehensive analysis of the contiguous United States. The econometric estimates are used to simulate landowner responses to sequestration policies. Key commodity prices are treated as endogenous and a carbon sink model is used to predict changes in carbon storage. Our estimated marginal costs of carbon sequestration are greater than those from previous engineering cost analyses and sectoral optimization models. Our estimated sequestration supply function is similar to the carbon abatement supply function from energy-based analyses, suggesting that forest-based carbon sequestration merits inclusion in a cost-effective portfolio of domestic U.S. climate change strategies.
Keywords: abatement, carbon, climate change, costs, forestry, greenhouse gases, land use, land-use change, sequestration
...or
http://www.innovations.harvard.edu/showdoc.html?id=9386
Land-Use Change and Carbon Sinks: Econometric Estimation of the Carbon Sequestration Supply Function

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http://www.yorkshirefutures.com/cb.aspx?page=20291C4A-D66B-4830-B914-28E6CB5738AC
Regional Econometric Model User Group Page
Search "The What Works Database"

0-0
http://www.camecon.co.uk/suite_economic_models/e3mg.htm
E3MG: An Energy-Environment-Economy (E3) Model at the Global Level
E3MG is a sectoral econometric model for the world that has been developed with the explicit intention of analysing long-term energy and environment interactions within the global economy and assessing short and long-term impacts of climate change policy. E3MG produces comprehensive annual forecasts to the year 2020, and long-term forecasts to the year 2100 and includes a set of fully endogenous technical progress indicators. The E3MG model provides a single-model framework in which detailed industry analysis is consistent with macro analysis; the key indicators, including world trade and technical progress, are modelled separately for each sector and region, and are aggregated to determine global impacts.

E3MG provides a highly disaggregated breakdown of economic activity (ESA-95 consistent) and energy use, based around the following model classifications:

20 World regions, including explicit treatment of the US, Japan, India, China, Mexico, Brazil and the four largest EU economies
42 Industrial sectors based on the NACE classification, including 16 service sectors and disaggregation of the energy sectors
28 Consumer spending categories
12 different fuel types, and 19 separate fuel user groups
14 atmospheric emissions

Many of the classifications in E3MG are consistent with those of E3ME and MDM-E3 and the model is solved on the software platform IDIOM.

http://www.camecon.com/press_releases/press_releases.htm
30/06/08 Industry and the British Economy: June 2008
Two years of below-trend GDP growth are forecast to be led by construction, finance, professional services, distribution and a range of manufacturing industries
14/03/08 UK Energy and the Environment: March 2008
Latest projections confirm that the Government’s 2010 carbon emissions and renewables goals will be missed by a large margin and that the statutory targets for emissions in 2020 are in doubt

0-0
http://www.esf.org/research-areas/life-e...ecasts-393.html
21. January 2008 10:21
Economists help climate scientists to improve global warming forecasts
Climate scientists are collaborating with experts in economic theory to improve their forecasting models and assess more accurately the impact of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Although there is broad consensus that there will be a significant rise in average global temperature, there is great uncertainty over the extent of the change, and the implications for different regions. Greater accuracy is urgently needed to provide a sound basis for major policy decisions and to ensure that politicians and the public remain convinced that significant changes in consumption patterns and energy production are essential to stave off serious consequences in the coming decades and centuries.
The climate modelling community has become increasingly aware that some of the statistical tools that could improve their modelling of climate change may already have been developed for econometric problems, which have some of the same features.
...
One problem at present is that uncertainties are commonly underestimated, and this makes it very difficult to predict with much confidence even the broad climatic consequences or rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. But Thejll hopes and expects that by incorporating the key tools of econometric modelling, climate prediction will become much more accurate and valuable.


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...
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http://www.ist-world.org/ProjectDetails.aspx?ProjectId=70e601d0b77a4c7b93f1d51818d50942
New econometric model for environment and strategies implementation and sustainable development/endogenous technical change (NEMESIS/ETC)
Abstract
Objectives and problems to be solved: Recent results of theoretical and empirical modelling suggest that recognising the endogenous nature of technological change (ETC) modifies the impact on both environment and economy of energy-related policies. With an analysis of ETC a new perspective is given on the potential importance of environmental policy instruments. Models with ETC have only recently emerged as the appropriate way to address sustainability questions; for this reason they require major developments to allow for a proper analysis of energy-related policies and technological transitions. ....
Taking into account the existing work already achieved in economic-economic and applied general equilibrium models (DEMETER, FUND, RICE, etc.) and to analyse the robustness of policy recommendations, detailed comparison of results of different models will be done, especially for evaluating the impacts of clean technologies and of environmental policies. Expected results and exploitation plans: This project analyses the strategic socio-economic consequences of generic policy-induced technological change: to what extent market opportunities can be created, for e.g. in the form of the utilisation of existing niche markets or the conception of new ones? What is the improvement of competitiveness of non-carbon technologies? These questions will include a detailed assessment of current and future energy production cost targets, as well as the market size, pricing and potential sales of new environment-friendly electricity technologies, (expressed in reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions).

0-0
http://www.iadb.org/sds/ENV/publication/publication_200_1355_e.htm
Spatial Econometric Analysis and Project Evaluation: Modeling Land Use Change in the Darién
By Gerald C. Nelson, Virginia Harris, Steven W. Stone (11/99, En)
Inter-American Development Bank
Under the mandate of its 8th Capital Replenishment, one of the Inter-American Development Bank's fundamental objectives is to foster sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean by integrating social, economic, and environmental objectives in its operations. An innovative example of this commitment is the Program for the Sustainable Development of Darien Province in Panama, a $70 million operation approved in 1998. The program's goals are to promote social equity, economic growth and environmental protection in a province that has the highest incidence of poverty in the country, diverse indigenous cultures, and a rich and irreplaceable ecosystem represented by the Darien National Park, an area of such valuable biodiversity that UNESCO has declared it both a World Heritage Site and a Man and the Biosphere Reserve.
A major component of the program involves the resurfacing of the Pan American highway, which runs roughly north south through the province to a point about 70 kilometers from the Colombian border. Given the unique cultural and environmental endowments in the region, any potentially negative environmental effects of the road resurfacing had to be anticipated and mitigated, if necessary, in conformity with the Bank's environmental impact review process. Consequently, the Environment and Natural Resources Management Division of the Bank's Regional Operations Department 2, in collaboration with the Sustainable Development Department's Environment Division, commissioned a series of baseline and impact analyses, of which this analysis was a part.
The paper illustrates the use of spatial analysis techniques to predict the land use changes that would occur after the road is resurfaced and other project interventions completed.

0-0

http://mises.org/literature.aspx?action=subject&Id=29
C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods ..... artists - get ready to change their "skeptical" stance on climate change 7/6/2008 6:41:00 PM by TokyoTom ...
mises.org/literature.aspx?action=subject&Id=29 - 168k

...a very unique BLOGsite....

Epistemological Relativism in the Sciences of Human Action
http://blog.mises.org/archives/008275.asp

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http://209.85.141.104/search?q=cache:DK31ttKaKwsJ:www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/ECS/IEW2005/docs/ppt/IEW2005_Bernard.ppt+econometric+%22climate+change%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29&gl=us
Assessing Equity Effects of Climate Change Policy through the American Consumer Expenditure Survey: New Results on Housing and Transportation
Alain L. Bernard; Ministry of Equipment, Transportation and Housing (France)

0-0

http://www.keei.re.kr/web_keei/en_publis...ac?OpenDocument
An econometric model for effectiveness of carbon tax by industry

0-0

http://www.climate.montana.edu/pdf/Riskchapter.pdf
Agriculture As a Managed Ecosystem: Implications for Econometric Analysis of Production Risk
John Antle and Susan Capalbo; Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics
Montana State University; April 2001
Preliminary version of a chapter published in 2002 in A Comprehensive Assessment of the Role of Risk in U.S. Agriculture, RE. Just and R.D. Pope, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 243–264.
Copyright 2001 by John Antle and Susan Capalbo. All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies.


INTRODUCTION
Managed ecosystems are complex, dynamic systems with spatially varying inputs and outputs that are the result of interrelated physical, biological and human decision making processes. There is a growing recognition by the scientific community that principles from the biological, physical, and social sciences must be integrated to understand and predict the behavior of complex biological and human systems such as managed ecosystems. ....

0-0
Thanks!
0-0

http://envirovaluation.org/index.php/2008/01/16/energy_policy_via_elsevier_science_direc_42
An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia
Abstract: We developed a comprehensive econometric model to study the long-term outlook of Malaysia's economy, energy and environment to 2030. Our projections under the reference scenario indicated that Malaysia's gross domestic production (GDP) is expected to average 4.6% from 2004 to 2030, and total primary energy consumption will triple by 2030. Coal import will increase following governmental policy of intensifying its use for power generation. Oil import is predicted to take place by 2013 and reach 45 Mtoe in 2030. Hence, in the near future, Malaysia's energy import dependency will rise. Carbon emissions will triple by 2030. On the other hand, our projections under an alternative renewable energy (RE) scenario showed that the utilization of RE is a strategic option to improve the long-term energy security and environmental performance of Malaysia. However, substantial governmental involvements and support, as well as the establishment of a regulatory framework are necessary.

0-0

http://www.interactivesupercomputing.com/success/econometricmodeling.php
...with PDF of Case Study:
Success Stories
Econometric Modeling
The Challenge
Scientists at Columbia University's Earth Institute are using supercomputers to better understand the economic impact of climate change on crops throughout the world, particularly in developing countries.


0-0
http://www.springerlink.com/content/w41671v762ngx575/
Adaptation, Spatial Heterogeneity, and the Vulnerability of Agricultural Systems to Climate Change and CO2 Fertilization: An Integrated Assessment Approach
Journal: Climatic Change
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
ISSN: 0165-0009 (Print) 1573-1480 (Online)
Issue: Volume 64, Number 3 / June, 2004 (Pages 289-315)
DOI: 10.1023/B:CLIM.0000025748.49738.93
Abstract:
In this paper we develop economic measures of vulnerability to climate change with and without adaptation in agricultural production systems. We implement these measures using coupled, site-specific ecosystem and economic simulation models. This modeling approach has two key features needed to study the response of agricultural production systems to climate change: it represents adaptation as an endogenous, non-marginal economic response to climate change; and it provides the capability to represent the spatial variability in bio-physical and economic conditions that interact with adaptive responses. We apply this approach to the dryland grain production systems of the Northern Plains region of the United States. The results support the hypothesis that the most adverse impacts on net returns distributions tend to occur in the areas with the poorest resource endowments and when mitigating effects of CO2 fertilization and adaptation are absent. We find that relative and absolute measures of vulnerability depend on complex interactions between climate change, CO2 level, adaptation, and economic conditions such as relativeoutput prices. The relationship between relative vulnerability and resource endowments varies with assumptions about climate change, adaptation, and economic conditions. Vulnerability measured with respect to an absolute threshold is inversely related to resource endowments in all cases investigated.

0-0
http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/academic/economics/staff/title,72364,en.html
Dr. Haoran Pan is a Research Fellow at CEMARE. He has been working on integrated modelling of economic, environmental and social systems for many years. Dr. Haoran Pan specializes in applied quantitative economic methods such as input-output analysis, general equilibrium modelling, econometric estimation and forecasting. He is very interested and experienced in interdisciplinary research. He has conducted various interdisciplinary projects and succeeded in linking economic models with various scientific and social models. His recent publications in peer-reviewed journals include:
1. The costs and benefits of early action before Kyoto compliance, with Denise Van Regemorter. Energy Policy, Vol. 32, 2004.
2. The cost efficiency of Kyoto flexible mechanisms: a top-down study with GEM-E3 world model. Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 20, 2005.
3. Competitive pressures on China: income inequality and migration, with Thijs ten Raa, Regional Science & Urban Economics, Vol. 35, Issue 6, 2005.
4. Dynamic and endogenous change of input-output structure under specific layers of technology. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Vol. 17, Issue 2, page 200-223, 2006.
5. Decarbonizing the global economy with induced technological change: scenarios to 2100 using E3MG, with T. Barker, J. Koehler, Rachel Warren and Sarah Winne, Energy Journal special issue 1, 2006.
6. Combining energy technology dynamics and macroeconometrics: the E3MG model, with J. Koehler, T. Barker and D. Anderson, Energy Journal, special issue 2, 2006.
7. Global value, full value, societal costs; capturing the true cost of destroying the marine ecosystems, with P. Failler, Social Science Information, special issue, 2007.
8. Technological change in energy systems: learning curve, logistic curve and technical coefficients, with J. Koehler, Ecological Economics 63 (2007), pp. 749-758.
9. New lessons for technology policy and climate change: investment for innovation, with J. Köhler et al. Climate Policy, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 156-161 (2007).
10. A regional computable general equilibrium model for fisheries, with P. Failler and C. Floros. Environmental and Resource Economics (under review)

0-0
http://rapidlibrary.com/index.php?q=introductory+econometrics+for+finance

...Yikes!! smile i.e.
http://www.kdirectory.co.uk/results.asp?qry=climate+change&rfid=lw44_45324&bp=climate+change

0-0
http://www.oecd.org/document/59/0,3343,en_2649_34257_30390651_1_1_1_1,00.html
Revision Analysis Using Statistical and Econometric Methods
"It also contains a description of statistical and econometric methods for performing ... What action are OECD governments taking to address climate change?" ...

0-0
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18376694
Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture : A case of study of coffee production in Veracruz, Mexico
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
GAY C. (1) ; ESTRADA F. (1) ; CONDE C. (1) ; EAKIN H. (1) ; VILLERS L. (1) ;
Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Centra de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior, 04510, Mexico, DF, MEXIQUE

Résumé / Abstract
This paper explores the relation between coffee production and climatic and economic variables in Veracruz in order to estimate the potential impacts of climate change. For this purpose, an econometric model is developed in terms of those variables. The model is validated by means of statistical analysis, and then used to project coffee production under different climatic conditions. Climate change scenarios are produced considering that the observed trends of climate variables will continue to prevail until the year 2020. An approach for constructing simple probability scenarios for future climate variability is presented and used to assess possible impacts of climate change beyond what is expected from changes in mean values. The model shows that temperature is the most relevant climatic factor for coffee production, since production responds significantly to seasonal temperature patterns. The results for the projected climate change conditions for year 2020 indicate that coffee production might not be economically viable for producers, since the model indicates a reduction of 34% of the current production. Although different economic variables (the state and international coffee prices, a producer price index for raw materials for coffee benefit, the national and the USA coffee stocks) were considered as potentially relevant, our model suggests that the state real minimum wage could be regarded as the most important economic variable. Real minimum wage is interpreted here as a proxy for the price of labor employed for coffee production. This activity in Mexico is very labor intensive representing up to 80% of coffee production costs. As expected, increments in the price of such an important production factor increase production costs and have strong negative effects on production. Different assumptions on how real minimum wage could evolve for the year 2020 are considered for developing future production scenarios.
Revue / Journal Title: Climatic change ISSN 0165-0009 CODEN: CLCHDX
Source / Source: 2006, vol. 79, no3-4, pp. 259-288 [30 page(s) (article)]
Langue / Language: Anglais

0-0

Uh ohhh, ...it's wandering off into French now; ...maybe a good time to leave off of this exploration into what kind of scienctific inquiry is out there.

smile
_________________________

Fire oxidizes carbon; Pyrolysis reduces carbon !

Top



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