Euclidean space is two dimensions space
Both 2D and 3D spaces can be Euclidean.
3D Euclidean space is the most useful way of modelling
the world as we experience it, even though
pseudo-Euclidean spaces (Minkowski space, in the case of SRT)
provide scientists with a better understanding of the
large scale universe.
Dimensions ! ?
Euclidean space is a flat two dimensions space without
conception of time .
Put negative time ( -t ) into Euclidean flat two dimensions
space and it will be ‘Pseudo – Euclidean space’
Put negative time ( -t ) into Euclidean/ Descartes three
dimensions space and it will be ‘negative Minkowski
Add to (-4D) a new D and it will be Kaluza 5D space.
Add to 5D a new D and it will be 6D space.
Etc …11D . . Etc …26D . . . . to . . . .higher – super –
- extra dimensions. ( !)
Every new dimension was taken from the heaven. (!)
Every new D needs new ‘ list of constants, which
were freely specifiable’ / The trouble with physics.
Page 119. Lee Smolin./, needs new ‘ extra particles –
- particles not seen in nature, / The trouble with physics.
Page 121. Lee Smolin / , needs new parameters.
What is next step?
a) some D must be freeze or hidden.
The real mechanism of the freeze is unknown.
‘ Unless there is some mysterious mechanism that
freezes the geometry of the extra dimensions . . . ‘
/Page 123. Lee Smolin /
b) some D must be wrapped or curled and ‘ there are
many different ways to curl them up’ / page 51, 119.
Lee Smolin / . But the real force (s ? ) of this process is
What is result?
‘When you added more dimensions, or more twists
to the geometry, thing always got worse, not better’
/ page 52. Lee Smolin /
‘Indeed, the more dimensions you include, the higher
the price you pay for freezing their geometry.’
/ page 51. Lee Smolin /
( and also the higher the price you pay for curling
their geometry. My opinion.)
What is the situation?
‘ In fact, neither theory nor experiment offers any evidence
at all that extra dimensions exist’.
/ page XVI. Lee Smolin./
I think the higher – super – extra – dimensions are only
good mathematical toys, it is good mathematical training..
Pecking order of the sciences:
Biologists answer only to Chemists.
Chemists answer only to Physicists.
Physicists answer only to Mathematicians.
Mathematicians answer only to God.
‘ I knew many physicists who were sure that supersymmetry
and the extra dimensions were there, waiting to be discovered’
/ Page 125. Lee Smolin./
/ Page 234./
‘ It was discovered in the 1980s that quantum gravity can be
precisely defined in a world with only two spatial dimensions.
We call this 2 + 1 quantum gravity, for two dimensions of space
and one of time’. / Lee Smolin./
So, what did they do?
At first they added one D and then one D more and more D
and later they began to hide these D and as conclusion (!)
we need only two D ( only 2D - !) and time (!) to explain
quantum gravity. (! ? !? )
I have no words.
What is ( 2D+ t) ?
In my peasant opinion ( 2D+ t ) is Euclidean flat two dimensions
space with positive time . Putting mass and electric charge
in this space we make step to understand the gravity.