Optica!!!!!

Ben T. Ito

March 3, 2008

This paper will prove that light does not have a wave structure by showing that the descriptions and derivations that support wave theory are invalid.

1. Introduction

Huygens (1690) states that light propagates by the formation of partial waves produced by the disturbance of an Ethereal matter yet Huygens’ Ethereal matter does not physically exist. In addition, the majority of Huygens’ partial waves’ structures are destroyed when the wave front is constructed. Fresnel (1818) establishes the wave theory of light by describing diffraction using a wave interference mechanism but segments of Fresnel’s interfering waves are annihilated to form the dark fringes of the diffraction pattern which violates energy conservation.

Maxwell (1864) describes an electromagnetic transverse wave structure of light. The disturbance of an elastic medium forms Maxwell’s electromagnetic transverse wave structure of light yet Maxwell’s elastic medium does not physically exist. In addition, the energy of Maxwell’s wave structure of light is dependent on the frequency and amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect (1899) that implies light is composed of particles that energy is dependent on only the frequency. Lenard’s photoelectric effect contradicts Maxwell’s wave theory of light.

Planck (1901) derives an energy element that is dependent on only the frequency using resonators (standing waves) yet all of Planck’s resonators are identical which implies that Planck’s energy element is monochromatic. Planck then uses the monochromatic energy element to derive a chromatic blackbody energy distribution law which is physically invalid. Einstein (1905) describes an energy quanta using Wien’s law. Einstein’s energy quanta contains gas molecule constants N and R but a gas molecule’s energy is dependent on the mass (m) and velocity (V) that variables are not included in Einstein’s energy quanta. Light is composed of mass-less particles that cannot be represented with gas molecules that have a mass. Einstein’s energy quanta is physically invalid.

In Einstein’s electrodynamics (1905), Maxwell-Hertz equations are used yet Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory is based on an elastic medium that does not physically exist. Einstein’s electric and magnetic forces act upon matter yet Einstein states that the ether matter is superfluous. Einstein’s electrodynamics is physically invalid. String theory (1970) uses an oscillating string to represent a wave-particle structure of light but using the strings’ amplitudes to form the intensity of the diffraction pattern implies that the strings’ energy is dependent on the amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect. Oscillating strings cannot be used to describe the diffraction effect of light.

2. Huygens

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14725/14725-h/14725-h.htm Huygens describes the propagation, and transmission-reflection mechanisms of light in “Treatise on Light” (1690). According to Huygens, light propagates by the formation of waves produced by the disturbance of an Ethereal matter.

“Now if one examines what this matter may be in which the movement coming from the luminous body is propagated, which I call Ethereal matter, one will see that it is not the same that serves for the propagation of Sound.” (Huygens, p.12)

The disturbance of the Ethereal matter forms Huygens’ wave structure of light. The formation of a wave structure of light requires a medium yet light propagates in a vacuum that is empty. Huygens’ wave theory of light is based on an Ethereal matter that does not physically exist.

Huygens implies that the Ethereal matter is real and describes the Ethereal matter (ether) with spherical balls (fig 1a,b).

“And it must be known that although the particles of the ether are not ranged thus in straight lines, as in our row of spheres, but confusedly, so that one of them touches several others, this does not hinder them from transmitting their movement and from spreading it always forward.” (Huygens, p. 16).

Huygens’ spherical ball representation, of the Ethereal matter (ether), is physically invalid since Huygens’ Ethereal matter does not physically exist.

In Huygens’ propagation mechanism, the wave front forms partial waves that are used to construct a new wave front (fig 2). The formation of the new wave front is used to represents the propagation of light.

“one of those comprised within the sphere DCF, will have made its particular or partial wave KCL, which will touch the wave DCF at C at the same moment that the principal wave emanating from the point A has arrived at DCF; and it is clear that it will be only the region C of the wave KCL which will touch the wave DCF, to wit, that which is in the straight line drawn through AB.” (Huygens, p. 20).

Only the far points of the partial waves’ structures are used to form the new wave front. The remaining and majority of the partial waves’ structures are arbitrarily destroyed. An enormous amount of the partial waves’ structures are created then destroyed in Huygens’ propagation mechanism of light which violates energy conservation.

In Huygens' transmission-reflection mechanism, surface waves originate from the transmission-reflection boundary surface. The far points of the surface waves are used to construct the reflection wave front. When the reflection wave front is constructed, the curvatures of the surface waves vary since the surface waves are propagating different distances due to the reflection angle (fig 3). The far points of the surface waves, with varying amplitudes do not form a constant amplitude reflection wave front (B-N). The same problem occurs with the construction of Huygens' transmission wave front (fig 4). Huygens’ transmission-reflection mechanism of light is physically invalid.

3. Fresnel

Fresnel’s diffraction mechanism is describe in “Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere” (1818).

“It follows from the principle of the superposition of small motions that the vibrations produced at any point in an elastic fluid by several disturbances are equal to the resultant of all the disturbances reaching this point at the same instant from different centres of vibration, whatever be their number.” (Fresnel, section 43, translated by Henry Crew).

The superposition of the small motions formed in an elastic fluid produce Fresnel’s interference effect yet Fresnel’s elastic fluid does not physically exist. Fresnel’s diffraction mechanism is based on an elastic fluid that does not physically exist.

Fresnel states that the interference of the diffracted secondary wavelets form the diffraction pattern but segments of Fresnel’s secondary wavelets’ structures are annihilated (destroyed) to form the dark fringes of the diffraction pattern which violate energy conservation.

The amplitudes of Fresnel’s interfering secondary wavelets are used to form the intensity of the diffraction pattern which implies that the energy of Fresnel’s secondary wavelets is dependent on the amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect that implies light is composed of particle that energy is dependent on only the frequency. Fresnel’s diffraction mechanism of light conflicts with the results of Lenard’s photoelectric effect.

4. Maxwell

In Maxwell’s paper “Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” (1864), Maxwell describes the propagation of light formed by the disturbance of an elastic medium.

“At the commencement of this paper we made use of the optical hypothesis of an elastic medium through which the vibration of light are propagated” (Maxwell, part VI).

Maxwell states that the vibration of light propagates through an elastic medium yet light propagates in a vacuum that is empty. Maxwell’s wave theory of light is based on an elastic medium that does not physically exist.

Maxwell states that the motion of the elastic medium forms an electromagnetic phenomena of light.

“it assumes that in that space there is matter in motion, by which the observed electromagnetic phenomena are produced.” (Maxwell, intro).

The motion of the elastic medium (matter) produces Maxwell’s electromagnetic phenomena yet Maxwell’s elastic medium does not physically exist. Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light is based on an elastic medium that does not physically exist.

Maxwell implies that the disturbance of the elastic medium forms an electric transverse wave structure of light that can describe polarization.

“the disturbance at any point is transverse to the direction of propagation, and such waves may have all the properties of polarized light.” (Maxwell, part VI).

Maxwell’s transverse wave structure of light is formed by the motion of an elastic medium that does not physically exist. There is no experimental evidence of an elastic medium which forms Maxwell’s transverse wave structure of light. Maxwell’s transverse wave structure of light that is used to describe polarization is physically invalid.

Maxwell describes the propagation of light using an equation that contains the velocity variable V.

“(108) If the equation of propagation of light is

F = A cos {[2pi/L](z – Vt)}” (Maxwell, part VI)............. 1

Maxwell’s propagation equation (equ 1) cannot be used to represent the propagation of light since z – Vt = 0. Maxwell’s propagation equation is invalid.

Lenard’s photoelectric effect (1899) implies that light is composed of particles that energy is dependent on only the frequency which conflicts with the energy of Maxwell’s wave structure of light that is dependent on the frequency and amplitude. Lenard’s photoelectric effect contradicts Maxwell’s wave theory of light.

5. Planck

http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Planck-1901/Planck-1901.html In Planck’s paper “On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum” (1901), an energy element and energy distribution law are derived using electromagnetic resonators (standing waves) that are formed in a diathermic medium.

“the entropy of a resonator vibrating in

an arbitrary diathermic medium depends only on the variable U/v” (Planck, part 2).

Planck’s derivation of the energy element and energy distribution law is based on a diathermic medium that does not physically exist.

To form Planck’s resonator, Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation propagates perpendicular to the blackbody interior surfaces and resonates between the surfaces forming nodes at both surfaces. Dividing the length of a square box by the wavelength, an exact integer result represents the resonator structure that forms nodes at both surfaces. Example, a .4 mm square box can form 800nm and 500nm wavelength resonators of light. The wavelengths 421nm, 552nm, 643m, and 746nm do not form a resonator structure in a .4 mm square box. Planck’s resonator mechanism does not represent the chromatic spectrum of light emitted by the blackbody radiation effect.

In Planck’s blackbody derivation, all of Planck’s resonators are identical (fig 11).

“a large number N of identical resonators, situated in the same stationary radiation field, and which are sufficiently separated so as not to influence each other directly. It is in this sense that we shall refer to the average energy U of a single resonator. Then to the total energy

UN = NU” (Planck, part 2)........... 2

“Let us call each such part the energy element ĺ; consequently we must set

UN = Pε..................... 3

where P represents a large integer generally, while the value of ε is yet uncertain.” (Planck, Part 1).

In Planck’s derivation, all the resonators are identical which implies that Planck energy element is monochromatic yet light emitted by the blackbody radiation effect is chromatic. The derivation of Planck’s monochromatic energy element is physically invalid.

Planck derives an entropy equation that is a function of U/ε using Boltzmann’s thermodynamic entropy equation (Planck, Part 1),

SN = k log W + constant,............ 4

and combination theory,

S = f(U/ε) = k{(1 + U/ε) log (1 + U/ε) – (U/ε) log (U/ε)}..............5

Equating equation 2 and 3,

U/ε = P/N............... 6

Planck states that N and P are constants which implies that U/ε is a constant. Planck’s entropy equation (equ 5) that states that U/ε is a variable is invalid. The derivation of Planck energy element using the entropy equation (equ 10) is mathematically invalid.

Planck’s energy element ε is derived using Wien’s law.

§10. If we apply Wien's displacement law in the latter form to equation (10) for the entropy S, we then find that the energy element ε must be proportional to the frequency v, thus:

ε = hv” (Planck, part II)............... 7

Planck uses Wien’s law that uses thermodynamics to describe electromagnetic radiation yet a gas molecule’s energy is dependent on the mass (m) and velocity (V) that variables are not included in Planck’s energy element. Light is energy that is mass-less. A gas molecule has a mass. Gas molecules cannot be used to describe the mass-less particles that compose light. Planck’s derivation of the energy element is invalid.

Planck’s chromatic blackbody energy distribution law is derived. Inserting the energy element (equ 7) in Planck’s entropy equation ( equ 5) then differentiating using 1/T = dS/dU forms,

1/T = (k/hv)log (1 + hv/U)................. 8

Rearranging equation 8 then using the exponential (Planck, part 2),

1

U = ------------------........... 9

e^(hv/kT) - 1 .

Planck’s blackbody energy distribution law u is derived using equation 9,

1

u = kv^3 ------------------............ 10

e^(hv/kT) - 1 .

All of the resonators (standing waves), in Planck’s derivation are identical which implies that the energy element is monochromatic. Planck uses a monochromatic energy element to derive a chromatic energy distribution law which is physically invalid since the light that is emitted by the blackbody radiation effect is chromatic. The derivation of Planck’s chromatic energy distribution law using Planck’s monochromatic energy element (equ 18) is physically invalid.

6. Einstein Energy Quanta

http://lorentz.phl.jhu.edu/AnnusMirabilis/AeReserveArticles/eins_lq.pdf In Einstein’s paper, “On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light” (1905), Einstein describes an energy quanta. Wien’s blackbody absorption equation,

p = af^3 e^(-[βf]/T),................... 11

is used to derive a blackbody entropy equation (Einstein, part 4),

S – S’ = [E/(βf)] ln(v/v’)................... 12

Boltzmann’s thermodynamic entropy equation is described (Einstein, part 5),

S – S’ = R/N ln W................ 13

Einstein states that the entropies of monochromatic radiation and perfect gas are equivalent,

“This equation shows that the entropy of a monochromatic radiation of sufficiently small density varies with volume according to the same rules as the entropy of a perfect gas or of a dilute solution.” (Einstein, part 4).

Einstein’s energy quanta is derived using Wien’s law,

“Monochromatic radiation of low density behaves--as long as Wien’s radiation formula is valid--in a thermodynamic sense, as if it consisted of mutually independent energy quanta of magnitude Rβf/N.” (Einstein, pt 6).

ε = Rβf/N.................... 14

Einstein uses Wien’s law that describes monochromatic radiation with thermodynamics. Einstein’s energy quanta Rβf/N contains gas molecule constants R and N but the energy of a gas molecule is also dependent on the mass (m) and velocity (V) which variables are not included in Einstein’s energy quanta. Light is energy that is mass-less. A gas molecule has a mass. Gas molecules that have a mass cannot be used to describe the mass-less particles that compose light. Einstein’s energy quanta is physically invalid.

7. Einstein Electrodynamics

http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www In Einstein’s electrodynamics paper, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” (1905), Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory is implied.

“Transformation of the Maxwell-Hertz Equations For Empty Space.

On the Nature of the Electromotive Force Occurring in a Magnetic

Field During Motion

1 dX dN dM 1 dL dY dZ

-- ---- = ----- - ----- -- ---- = ----- - ----- 15a,b

c dt dy dz c dt dz dy

1 dY dL dN 1 dM dZ dX

-- ---- = ----- - ----- -- ----- = ----- - ----- 16a,b

c dt dz dx c dt dx dz

1 dX dM dL 1 dN dX dY

-- ---- = ----- - ----- -- ----- = ----- - ----- 17a,b

c dt dx dy c dt dy dx

where (X, Y, Z) denotes the vector of the electric force, and (L, M, N) that of the magnetic force.” (Einstein*, part 6).

Einstein uses Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory that is based on an elastic medium. Einstein states that the elastic medium (ether) is superfluous,

“The introduction of a “luminiferous ether”' will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an “absolutely stationary space” provided with special properties, nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place.” (Einstein*, intro).

Einstein states that the electromagnetic process forms in empty space which conflicts with Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory where the motion of the elastic medium forms the electromagnetic phenomena (Maxwell, intro). Einstein’s electrodynamics conflicts with Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light.

Einstein’s electric and magnetic force vectors are transformed into a moving coordinate system, (X’, Y’, Z’) and (L’, M’, N’),

X’ = X,.......... Y’ = β[Y + (v/c)N], .......... Z’ = β[Z + (v/c)M], .......... 18a,b,c

L’ = L,......... M’ = β[M + (v/c)Z],.......... N’ = β[N + (v/c)Y]............. 19a,b,c

where (Einstein*, part 6),

1

β = --------------------------- 20

[1 - (v^2/c^2)]^(1/2).

Einstein states that ether matter is superfluous (obsolete) and that the electromagnetic process is formed in empty space which is physically invalid since forces act upon matter. Einstein’s moving coordinate system electric and magnetic forces are physically invalid.

8. String Theory

String theory implies a wave-particle structure of light that can be used in Fresnel’s diffraction mechanism but using the strings’ amplitudes, to form the intensity of the diffraction pattern suggests that the strings’ energy is dependent on the amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect that implies light is composed of particles that energy is dependent on only the frequency. The oscillating strings’ amplitudes cannot be used to describe the diffraction effect of light which is the foundation of the wave theory of light. The string theory of light is physically invalid.

9. Conclusion

The wave theory is based on a medium (ether) that does not physically exist. Huygens, Fresnel, Maxwell and Planck use a medium (Ethereal matter, elastic fluid, elastic medium, diathermic medium) that do not physically exist to imply a wave structure of light that is formed by the motion of a medium yet there is no physical evidence of a medium that forms the wave structure of light. Vacuum is empty and does not contain a medium that is required in forming a wave structure of light. Modern physicists ignore the non-existence of the ether and accept the wave theory of light. This and numerous additional violations of logic are required in maintaining the wave theory of light.

Fresnel establishes the wave theory of light by describing the diffraction effect of light using a wave interference mechanism that uses the waves’ amplitudes to form the intensity of the diffraction effect of light which suggests that the energy of light is dependent on the wave amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect that implies that light is composed of particles that energy is dependent on only the frequency. Lenard’s photoelectric effect conflicts with Fresnel’s diffraction mechanism which is the foundation of the wave theory of light.

Maxwell describes an electromagnetic transverse wave structure of light. The disturbance of an elastic medium forms Maxwell’s electromagnetic transverse wave structure of light yet Maxwell’s elastic medium does not physically exist. In addition, the energy of an electromagnetic wave structure of light is dependent on the frequency and amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect.

Planck derives an energy element that is dependent on only the frequency using resonators (standing waves) yet all of Planck’s resonators are identical which implies that Planck’s energy element is monochromatic. Planck then uses the monochromatic energy element to derive a chromatic blackbody energy distribution law which is physically invalid.

Einstein describes an energy quanta using Wien’s law. Einstein’s energy quanta contains gas molecule constants N and R but a gas molecule’s energy is dependent on the mass (m) and velocity (V) that variables are not included in Einstein’s energy quanta. Einstein’s energy quanta is physically invalid.

String theory implies a wave-particle structure of light that can be used in Fresnel’s diffraction mechanism but using the strings’ amplitudes, to form the intensity of the diffraction pattern implies that the strings’ energy is dependent on the amplitude which conflicts with Lenard’s photoelectric effect that implies light is composed of particles that energy is dependent on only the frequency. The oscillating strings’ amplitudes cannot be used to describe the diffraction effect of light which is the foundation of the wave theory of light. Global Warming

10. References

Einstein, Albert. “On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light”. Annalen der Physik. 17: 132-148. 1905.

http://lorentz.phl.jhu.edu/AnnusMirabilis/AeReserveArticles/eins_lq.pdf Einstein*, Albert. “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”. Annalen der Physik. 17: 891-921. 1905.

http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www Fresnel, Augustin. "Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere". French Academy of Science. 1818.

Huygens, Christiann. “Treatise on Light”. French Academy of Science. 1690.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14725/14725-h/14725-h.htm Huygens, Christiann. Treatise on Light. ebook. Translated by Silvanus P. Thompson. 2005.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14725/14725-h/14725-h.htm Lenard, Philipp. Annalen der Physik. 8: 149 – 198. 1902.

Maxwell, James. “Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”. Royal Society Transactions. volume CLV. 1864.

Niven, W. D. "The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell". Dover Pub. 1994.

Nye, Mary Jo. “The Question of the Atom”. Tomash Pub. 1984.

Planck, Max. “On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum”. Annalen der Physik. IV, 4: 553-563. 1901.

http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Planck-1901/Planck-1901.html Wien, Wilhelm. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Science, Berlin. p.55. 1893.

Judi Bari........................ Quran